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NCJ Number: 193425 Find in a Library
Title: Diffusion Processes in Homicide
Author(s): Alfred Blumstein; Jacquiline Cohen; Daniel Cork; John Engberg; George Tita
Corporate Author: Carnegie Mellon University
Dept of Statistics
United States of America
Date Published: 1999
Page Count: 16
Sponsoring Agency: Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
NCJRS Photocopy Services
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Grant Number: 95-IJ-CX-0005
Sale Source: Carnegie Mellon University
Dept of Statistics
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Literature Review
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the role of gun availability in rising youth homicide rates in the late 1980's, the diffusion from juvenile involvement in drug markets to juvenile homicides during the mid-1980's, the spatial diffusion of homicide within a city, the role of youth gangs in the spatial diffusion of homicide in one city, the diffusion of homicide to other youth, and the rise and decline of youth homicide rates from 1985 through 1998.
Abstract: This study involved a literature review of relevant research that involved national data as well as cross-city and within-city analyses. It concludes that the primary factor in the increase in youth homicides in the mid-1980's was greater access to handguns by youth. Across different cities, the increase in youth homicides followed the rise in youth involvement in crack markets by about 3 years. At approximately the same time, emerging new youth gangs in many cities became major participants in violence and the supplying of guns to their members. Further, this study concludes that crack markets and youth gangs contributed to escalating youth violence, both directly through the activities of participants and indirectly by serving as important vehicles for the diffusion of guns and the associated lethal violence to youth more broadly. Analyses of time trends in youth homicides at the national, inter-city, and intra-city levels found that declining rates were well underway by 1995. Such pervasive declines are compatible with the self-limiting processes that signal the waning of an epidemic. There is also clear evidence that the reduced use of guns was an important factor in the decline in youth homicides by the mid-1990's; however, these effects were confounded by mutual influences of changing drug markets (fewer new users) and participation in youth gangs. Another factor was a robust economy that provided legitimate jobs for inner city youth who might have otherwise been recruited into the drug industry. 12 references
Main Term(s): Gangs
Index Term(s): Crack; Drug Related Crime; Firearm-crime relationships; Gang violence; Homicide; Homicide causes; Homicide trends; Juvenile gang behavior patterns; NIJ final report; Trend analysis
Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
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