skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 193623 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Gender Labels and Gender Identity as Predictors of Drug Use Among Ethnically Diverse Middle School Students
Journal: Youth and Society  Volume:33  Issue:3  Dated:March 2002  Pages:442-475
Author(s): Stephen Kulis; Flavio Francisco Marsiglia; Michael L. Hecht
Date Published: March 2002
Page Count: 34
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute on Drug Abuse
Bethesda, MD 20892-9561
Grant Number: 5RO1DA05629-07
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: A study of students in a middle school in an ethnically diverse southwestern city sought to determine the relationships between male/female gender labels and gender identity in predicting juvenile drug use.
Abstract: The 404 participants were mostly 12 or 13 years old and included 47 percent Mexican American youth and 23 percent non-Hispanic white youths. Fifty-two percent were male; 48 percent were female. The questionnaire included demographic items and Likert-type and dichotomous subscales focused on students’ self-identities and their experiences with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. The research used factor analysis to derive three dimensions of gender identity. One dimension related to femininity and nurturance. The second related to masculinity and self-confidence. The third related to masculinity and dominance. Results revealed that males used more drugs, used them more often, and were overrepresented among users of marijuana and hard drugs. Results of bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that masculine dominance related to a higher frequency of recent drug use among both males and females, particularly for males’ use of marijuana and hard drugs, with more drug offers and a greater variety of drugs used. In addition, gender identity measures did not supersede gender labels in predicting drug outcomes, although they were more powerful predictors in combination than separately. Findings supported the premise that gender labels and gender-identity were both important predictors of juvenile drug use and indicated the need for further research on how youths perceive their gender identity in connection with their drug use. Table, figure, notes, and 80 references
Main Term(s): Juvenile drug use
Index Term(s): Adolescent attitudes; Drug abuse causes; Female sex roles; Gender issues; Role perception; Self concept
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.