skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 200467 Find in a Library
Title: Background Correction in Forensic Photography II. Photography of Blood Under Conditions of Non-Uniform Illumination or Variable Substrate Color--Practical Aspect and Limitations
Journal: Journal of Forensic Sciences  Volume:48  Issue:3  Dated:May 2003  Pages:604-613
Author(s): John H. Wagner; Gordon M. Miskelly Ph.D.
Date Published: May 2003
Page Count: 10
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This paper describes how a photographic method that produces background corrections in images can enhance the image of bloodstains under conditions of non-uniform lighting or variable substrate color, with attention to the practical aspects and limitations of this method.
Abstract: The background correction is designed to enhance the detectability of a substance that has a narrow absorption band in the visible region compared with those typical of most substrates. The method is illustrated in this paper by application to the detection of blood by using a two-dimensional extension of the Allen correction of blood quantitation. The method described is designed to visually identify regions where blood is likely to be found on a surface whose texture, color, and/or lighting conditions make it difficult to spot areas that warrant testing for blood. This paper describes the procedure for determining whether a particular digital camera might be suitable for generating images for background detection. The limits due to the camera are both related to noise in an individual image and variability between images. Ways of dealing with these limits are discussed. Further, the three-wavelength method of background correction described requires that the pixels in the original photograph are at appropriate brightness levels. The upper and lower limits of pixel brightness must be determined for a particular camera. The authors describe how to make this determination. Should a set of images of a potentially bloodstained item include pixels that are underexposed or overexposed, the authors explain two methods of addressing this problem. The paper describes the camera used in the experiments profiled in this paper, as well as the light source and the processing of the images. 7 figures and 11 references
Main Term(s): Police policies and procedures
Index Term(s): Blood stains; Camera technology; Forensic sciences; Investigative techniques; Photography; Photography techniques; Police photography training
Note: For the first part of this paper, see NCJ-200466.
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.