skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 201744 Find in a Library
Title: Effect of Gang Membership on Parole Outcome
Journal: Journal of Gang Research  Volume:10  Issue:4  Dated:Summer 2003  Pages:25-38
Author(s): Marilyn D. McShane; Frank P. Williams III; H. Michael Dolny
Date Published: 2003
Page Count: 14
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article discusses the recidivism levels of gang members on parole.
Abstract: Gang members have long been thought of as crime-prone individuals. Little research has been done to determine whether gang members have higher rates of parole failure and whether these experiences can be explained outside of the gang membership context. This study examined gang members’ recidivism rates in comparison to the general parole population and controls for variables that may potentially contribute to any such differences. The data were derived from closed case files at California parole offices. The primary hypothesis was that gang members would be more likely to fail on parole than the average non-gang-member parolee. It was anticipated that two factors would be involved in the gang member-parole failure relationship: age and type of commitment offense. Results showed that parolees that were affiliated with gangs were statistically more likely to fail on parole. While age at release was a significant predictor of parole outcome, controlling for that variable did not eliminate the ability of gang affiliation to predict recidivism. Gang members continued to have higher rates of parole failure regardless of their age group. Gang members were potentially more likely to engage in certain types of crimes which, as a category, result in greater recidivism. The relationship of gang membership with parole outcome may be a function of a recidivist propensity within certain crime types. When controlled for crime type by using five categories of commitment offenses, the gang-recidivism relationship remained statistically significant across all offense categories. The results demonstrate that gang membership is not one of the strongest predictors of recidivism but it does remain statistically significant. It was concluded that gang membership has an independent, negative effect on parole outcome. 6 tables, 10 references, 9 endnotes
Main Term(s): Gangs; Parole outcome prediction
Index Term(s): Parole; Parole violations; Post-release programs; Prediction; Probation or parole services; Recidivism
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.