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  NCJ Number: NCJ 209084     Find in a Library
  Title: Drug Smuggling Behavior: A Developmental Smuggling Model, Part I
  Document URL: PDF 
  Author(s): Terrance G. Lichtenwald Ph.D.
  Journal: Forensic Examiner  Dated:November/December 2003  Pages:15 to 22
  Date Published: 11/2003
  Page Count: 8
  Annotation: This first part of a two-part article on drug smuggling behavior presents a drug smuggler's perception of the current drug courier models, introduces a new developmental smuggling model (DSM), and describes the behavioral characteristics of the phase-I (lowest level) smuggler.
  Abstract: The author conducted numerous in-depth interviews and conducted extensive psychological testing with a man who claimed to be an international smuggler, in addition to cross-checking his information with records and databases of numerous Federal agencies. This yielded a body of behavioral information compiled over 7 years that was used to develop a three-phase model of smuggling behavior by individuals and organizations. The DSM developed encompasses the variability of smuggling behaviors and organizations. The variability ranges from acts done by individuals, small groups, and large groups; acts done in different countries; acts committed under different political systems; and the extensive range of ethnicities of smugglers. Further, the smuggling may involve a single individual who purchases contraband through his/her own resources, transporting it himself/herself, and then either keeping it for personal use or selling it to friends. In addition, the smuggling operation may be at the multinational level with many financial backers and involving complex methods, intricate transportation routes, and multiple vendors. The proposed model involves a pyramid of smugglers that has low-level smugglers at the base of the pyramid and high-level smugglers at its tip who set the basic structure for the operations and sales of phase 1 and phase 2 smugglers. Although more developed than individuals and organizations at phase 1, individuals and organizations at phase 2 still lack sufficient organization and liquidity to allow profitability and negotiation with the point of origin. This article provides more detail on the characteristics of phase-1 smugglers than the smugglers involved in phases 2 and 3. 1 figure, 1 table, and 9 references
  Main Term(s): Drug offender profiles
  Index Term(s): Smuggling/Trafficking ; Models ; Drug smuggling
  Type: Report (Study/Research)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: For Part 2 of this article, see NCJ-209085.
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

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