skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 210512 Find in a Library
Title: Manufacturing Variations in a Die-Cut Footwear Model
Journal: Journal of Forensic Identification  Volume:55  Issue:4  Dated:July/August 2005  Pages:503-517
Author(s): Alan Kainuma
Date Published: July 2005
Page Count: 15
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined 100 pairs of a footwear model produced through a die-cut process, in order to identify any variations that resulted in the manufacturing process.
Abstract: The author, who works in the crime laboratory of the Honolulu Police Department (Hawaii), frequently deals with crime-scene footprints produced by inexpensive "flip-flops." One of the more popular brands, the "Locals" rubber slipper distributed by Zori Zori in Hawaii, was selected for this study, specifically size 10 brand model 1350 manufactured in China. Information on the manufacturing process was obtained through an interpreter, so the author advises that the manufacturing information may not be entirely correct. The slippers are manufactured by a die-cut process, which uses a clicker machine that stamps down on a steel die to cut outsoles from sheet material, a process analogous to the use of a cookie cutter on sheets of dough. This paper describes analysis procedures used in examining 100 unworn pairs of the slipper. The analysis found that no two slipper soles examined were cut exactly the same in terms of the orientation of the design elements on the sole, which consists of diamond-shaped elevations arranged in rows. Variations in the orientation of the pattern on the sole, together with the positioning of the strap plugs and variations in the physical size of the design elements on the sole, should enable an examiner to distinguish between the majority of soles in a particular size of this footwear model. 1 reference and appended tables of pattern coding data and pattern measurements
Main Term(s): Police policies and procedures
Index Term(s): Comparative analysis; Evidence collection; Investigative techniques; Shoe prints and tire tracks; Suspect identification
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.