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NCJ Number: 217696 Find in a Library
Title: Inspiration and the Origins of Global Waves of Terrorism
Journal: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism  Volume:30  Issue:2  Dated:February 2007  Pages:97-112
Author(s): Mark Sedgwick
Date Published: February 2007
Page Count: 16
Type: Issue Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article examines the causes of terrorism at a global level and reexamines the chronology of terrorism since the 19th century.
Abstract: In examining global waves of terrorism, the first such wave was the Italian wave which may have started as early as the 1820s with the Carbonari. It was boosted by the successes of the Young Italy in 1860 and the IRA/IRB in 1922, and lasted until the Zionist terrorist campaigns of 1943-1948. The origins of terrorism may be associated with the industrial revolution and its ideology which was predominantly socialist and anti-imperial nationalist. The German wave started as early as 1919 and was boosted by the successes of Mussolini in 1922 and Hitler in 1934 lasting until World War II. It may be associated with the collapse of contiguous land empires during World War I, and its ideology was predominantly “fascist.” The Chinese wave started in 1937, and was boosted by the successes of Mao in 1949, of Castro in 1957, and of the FLN in 1962. Its ideology was predominantly anti-colonial nationalist and socialist. The Afghan wave started in 1978 and continues today. Its ideology is predominantly Islamist-nationalist. Several arguments are made objecting to this scheme. However, it seems clear that the inspiration provided by the occasional successes of a certain sort of violent strategy, an “armed struggle” that starts with small numbers and emphasizes the indirect impact of violence, is a more important factor in causing terrorism than either ideology or major events that have a primarily ideological impact on the world. The origins of terrorist campaigns and terrorist groups are commonly sought in the internal history of the groups in questions and in their immediate historical environments. This article deals with another variety of origin, in what might be called the global environment--the globally visible and apparently successful uses of terrorism and similar violent strategies. 57 notes
Main Term(s): Terrorism/Mass Violence
Index Term(s): International terrorism; Revolutionary or terrorist groups; Terrorism causes; Terrorist ideologies
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