skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 220424 Find in a Library
Title: Preliminary Investigation Into Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) Ruthenium (III) as a Chemiluminescent Reagent for the Detection of 3,6-Diacetylmorphine (Heroin) on Surfaces
Journal: Journal of Forensic Sciences  Volume:52  Issue:5  Dated:September 2007  Pages:1111-1114
Author(s): Kent M. Agg B.Sc.; Neil W. Barnett D.Sc.; Simon W. Lewis Ph.D.; James R. Pearson Ph.D.
Date Published: September 2007
Page Count: 4
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This paper reports on preliminary studies regarding the utility of using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (III) as a chemiluminescent spray reagent spot-test for heroin on surfaces, particularly polymer banknotes.
Abstract: The two forms of the reagent (aqueous and anhydrous) yielded vastly different results. The aqueous reagent produced slow, low-intensity chemiluminescence; and the anhydrous reagent generated a fast, bright response in the presence of 3,6-diacetylmorphine (heroin). The disadvantage of the anhydrous reagent is the use of a flammable solvent sprayed as an aerosol, so no naked flame can be present when using this reagent. The aqueous reagent was selective for 3,6-diacetylmorphine over codeine, acetylcodeine, and noscapine, but 3-monoacetlymorphine also gave slow long-lasting chemiluminescence with the aqueous reagent. This should not be a problem, however, since 3-monoacetylmorphine is a byproduct in the synthesis of heroin. The chemiluminescence reaction was studied by using stopped-flow instrumentation in order to gain insight into the reaction kinetics of 3,6-diacetylmorphine and the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (III) reagent in an aqueous and anhydrous environment, as well as in the presence of some heroin cutting agents. The reagent was dispensed as a spray over suspect articles. Several surfaces were examined, including polymer bank notes and the laboratory bench. 1 table, 2 figures, and 26 references
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Australia; Drug detection; Foreign criminal justice research; Forensic sciences; Heroin; Investigative techniques
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.