skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 220497 Find in a Library
Title: Analysis of the Components of the Miranda Warnings
Journal: Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice  Volume:7  Issue:3  Dated:2007  Pages:59-76
Author(s): Jeffrey L. Helms PsyD
Date Published: 2007
Page Count: 18
Publisher: http://www.haworthpress.com 
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the differences among Miranda warnings used in various jurisdictions across the United States.
Abstract: Analyses of juvenile and adult cards/forms with Miranda warnings in various jurisdictions showed that they differed significantly in stating the five "prongs" of the Miranda warnings. The findings support those of Grisso (1981, 1998b) and Helms and Holloway (2006) in showing that individuals' understanding varied significantly when reading the four main warnings/prongs of Miranda. The findings also show that the inclusion of additional information, such as ancillary rights and preambles, increases the difficulty in understanding the Miranda warnings. At the very least, the inclusion of extra material beyond the core provisions of Miranda distracts from the key rights stated. The Miranda cards/forms for juveniles were significantly more difficult to read than the adult cards/forms. When combined with research that shows differing capabilities among individuals in their ability to understand Miranda warnings, as well as the stress of receiving the warnings in the context of an interrogation, this study shows the difficulty of establishing that a suspect, particularly a juvenile, clearly understood the Miranda warnings prior to waiving the rights inherent in the warnings. This study collected adult and juvenile Miranda warning cards issued to field officers in all 50 States, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and several Federal agencies. Readability was tested with the Flesch-Kincaid Grade level and Flesch Reading Ease methods. These methods involve counting words, syllables, and sentences in a passage. 4 tables, 2 figures, and 15 references
Main Term(s): Police policies and procedures
Index Term(s): Communication techniques; Field interrogation and interview; Miranda rights; Rights of the accused; Waiver of rights
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=242315

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.