skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 221046 Find in a Library
Title: Effects of Gender, Ethnicity and Educational Status on Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress in Adolescence
Journal: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma  Volume:15  Issue:1  Dated:2007  Pages:93-111
Author(s): W. Cody Wilson; Beth Spenciner Rosenthal; William S. Battle
Date Published: 2007
Page Count: 19
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of General Medical Sciences
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Grant Number: GM08153
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the differential impact of exposure to community violence on populations of adolescents characterized by gender, ethnicity, and educational status, with attention to the link between exposure to community violence and psychological distress.
Abstract: The study found a significant relationship between exposure to community violence and psychological distress among older adolescents, regardless of variations in the characteristics measured. Girls were not found to be more vulnerable than boys to psychological distress due to exposure to community violence. African-Americans were not more vulnerable than Latinos, and individuals with less education were not more vulnerable than those with a better education. These findings and their interpretation, however, are advised to be tentative, since the study examined only a single sample of older adolescents; only exposure to community violence as an antecedent variable; only psychological distress as a consequent variable; and only gender, ethnicity, and educational status as moderating variables. Also, ethnicity was limited to two groups. Study participants were 1,142 older adolescents who lived in New York City, principally in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Data were collected with group-administered questionnaires at five educational sites from spring 1998 through spring 2001. Exposure to community violence was measured as being either a witness or a victim of specific types of community violence over respondents' 3 years in high school. Psychological distress was measured with the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Each member of the sample was classified into one of five educational levels according to the data collection site. Race/ethnicity was a classification based on the "ethnicity" and the "race" items used in the 2000 U.S. Census. 2 tables and 54 references
Main Term(s): Juvenile victims
Index Term(s): Educational levels; Emotional disorders; Ethnic groups; Gender issues; New York; Race; Victim reactions to crime; Victims of violent crime
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.