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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 221062 Find in a Library
Title: First Probation Officers in England and Wales 1906-14
Journal: British Journal of Criminology  Volume:47  Issue:6  Dated:November 2007  Pages:938-954
Author(s): Raymond Gard
Date Published: November 2007
Page Count: 17
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: This essay uses contemporary sources in arguing that the first probation officers appointed in England and Wales following the enactment of the Probation of Offenders Act of 1907 had different methods and objectives than the Police Court Missionaries working in London courts prior to this legislation.
Abstract: Following the passage of the Probation of Offenders Act of 1907, many of the Police Court Missionaries in London were nominated by their respective employing societies to work as Missionary Probation Officers, with the societies receiving a grant from the government; however, their working methods, management, and objectives were unchanged. The Home Office appointed two probation officers to work in the newly created Children's Courts of London. These officers were referred to as Children's Probation Officers and were under the direct supervision of the Home Office. Outside of London, a varied set of practices developed. There were no Children's Probation Officers; and although some towns and cities had Police Court Missionaries who began acting as Missionary Probation Officers, other jurisdictions developed their own distinctive arrangements. By 1909, the Home Office had decided that a review of probation was necessary. By 1914, efforts to build a probation system had resulted in a well-established system of Police Court Missionaries, now called Missionary Probation Officers, working in the adult courts and continuing with a work method rooted in a combination of religious mission and the objectives of Charity Organizations Society, which reflected a Victorian version of social work that focused on material help. Bolted onto this traditional work structure was a small group of Children's Probation Officers who worked in the newly formed Children's Court of London. Their origins and working methods were rooted in a different view of social work that was focused on counseling juveniles and working with their families. 35 references
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): England; Foreign laws; Foreign probation or parole services; Legislative impact; Probation or parole officers; Probation or parole services; Wales
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