skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 221486 Find in a Library
Title: Study of the Impact of Three Leadership Styles on Integrity Violations Committed by Police Officers
Journal: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management  Volume:30  Issue:4  Dated:2007  Pages:587-607
Author(s): Leo Huberts; Muel Kaptein; Karin Lasthuizen
Date Published: 2007
Page Count: 21
Document: PDF
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: This study explored the connection between three aspects of leadership (tole modeling, strictness, and openness) and nine types of integrity violations within the Dutch police force.
Abstract: The findings indicate that role modeling, strictness, and openness of leaders influence the behavior of police officers, but the impact of the variables on the different types of integrity violations varies. Specific leadership qualities are required to curb specific types of integrity violations; role modeling is especially significant in limiting unethical conduct in the contest of interpersonal relationships. Employees appear to copy the leader’s integrity standards in their daily interaction with one another. Strictness is important as well but appears to be particularly effective in controlling fraud, corruption, and the misuse of resources. The impact of openness is less evident. Role modeling appears to have a significant influence on all types of misconduct with relatively strong effects on internal corruption (favoritism), misconduct (discrimination, harassment, gossiping, bullying), and falsely calling in sick. Strictness has a significant influence on 15 of 20 integrity violations. This characteristic has little influence on violations that are directly linked to police work and getting the job done. Openness has a significant effect on 15 types of integrity violations, but minimal effect on a variety of violations (types of fraud, conflicts of interest, misusing information, discrimination, harassment, waste, and abuse of resources). A relatively strong influence can be discerned on two integrity violations: internal favoritism, and discriminatory remarks to citizens and suspects. The relevance is that managers should realize that the types of integrity violations that they want to prevent require different kinds of managerial behavior. The identification of significant connections between leadership and integrity violations is important for further research and theory development. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire from 3,125 regular police officers (70 percent) and supervisors (30 percent), from 5 voluntarily participating police organizations across the country. Tables, references
Main Term(s): Netherlands; Police corruption
Index Term(s): Police career counseling; Police career development; Police discipline; Police discretion; Police management; Police misconduct; Police organizational structure; Police personnel; Police policies and procedures; Police professionalism; Police reform; Police reprimands; Police standards; Police supervision
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.