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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 221605 Find in a Library
Title: Neighborhood Characteristics and Individual Homicide Risks: Effects of Social Cohesion, Confidence in the Police, and Socioeconomic Disadvantage
Journal: Homicide Studies  Volume:12  Issue:1  Dated:February 2008  Pages:90-116
Author(s): Paul Nieuwbeerta; Patricia L. McCall; Henk Elffers; Karin Wittebrood
Date Published: February 2008
Page Count: 27
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the relationship between characteristics of neighborhoods in the Netherlands and the likelihood of homicide victimization.
Abstract: Results show that in addition to crime and victim characteristics, neighborhood social cohesion and socioeconomic disadvantage affect homicide risks. The findings used nationwide data from the Netherlands and were consistent with those found in U.S. city studies. The Netherlands is a country with a relatively low homicide rate. Homicides in the Netherlands are geographically equally distributed social circumstances. Many neighborhoods in rural areas were included; different types of homicides were distinguished. A clear corroboration of the theories of social disorganization theory and the strain/deprivation theory were observed. Lower levels of social cohesion in a neighborhood significantly increased the probability that inhabitants of these neighborhoods were victims of all types of homicide, with the exception of murders occurring during the course of an argument. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in a neighborhood were also shown to be related to a greater probability that residents living in these neighborhoods were murdered for all types of homicide. The police effectiveness in a neighborhood does not affect the probability that residents who live there are being murdered in any type of homicide. Implications for policymaking and further theory development are discussed. According to the data which only provided victim’s residence as geographical information, a hypothesis was derived explaining victimization risks. Because people spend most of their time in their neighborhood of residence and victims are often murdered by neighbors or someone in reasonable close proximity, then the characteristics of the victim’s residential neighborhood provide measures of characteristics that related also to places where homicides take place or where offenders live. People are also likely to work outside their neighborhoods or travel outside for leisure activities, so the victims may find themselves in dangerous places that may not be characteristic of their own neighborhoods. Limitations and suggestions for future research are detailed. Tables, notes, references
Main Term(s): Crime in foreign countries; Netherlands; Victimization; Victimization risk
Index Term(s): Foreign countries; Foreign crime prevention; Foreign criminal justice research; Victims in foreign countries
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