skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 221774 Find in a Library
Title: Adding the Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Routine Activities: A Further Test of Routine Activity Theory
Journal: Security Journal  Volume:21  Issue:1-2  Dated:2008  Pages:95-116
Author(s): Elizabeth R. Groff
Date Published: 2008
Page Count: 22
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
Grant Number: 2005-IJ-CX-0015
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study used an existing model of basic street robbery in order to test whether the core premise of routine activity theory (i.e., as time away from home increases so will risk for being a victim of street robbery) held true under different versions of activity spaces.
Abstract: The findings support the main premise of routine activity theory, i.e., that the shift of routine activities away from home increases rates of street robbery, and it further expands previous research with two major findings. First, support for routine activity theory's core proposition depends on the type of schedule constraints placed on the agents. The findings support routine activity theory's core proposition, but not when the agent's activity spaces are geographically constrained. Second, time and space-time constraints have a different influence on the incidence of street robbery. The existence of time schedules for agents, whether for potential victims or potential offenders, reduces the incidence of street robbery by approximately 77 percent and changes the distribution of street robbery events. This is evidence that limits on time of exposure/opportunity, regardless of where the exposure occurs, reduces opportunities for street robbery. These findings suggest more complex modifications of routine activities theory in terms of crime risk, based on variations in time and space parameters. The tests employed in this study used the same input data and parameters as the previous studies (i.e., the land use and street network of Seattle, WA) in order to provide the basis for the model's setting and agent activity spaces. Four datasets that describe conditions in Seattle were used to inform the activity spaces of agents: total population, total employment, total potential activities, and streets. There are 16,035 nodes in Seattle, and these locations represent places at which a street robbery may occur. 6 tables, 2 figures, and 61 references
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Crimes of opportunity; Geographic distribution of crime; NIJ grant-related documents; Opportunity theory; Robbery; Routine activity theory
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.