skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 221887 Find in a Library
Title: Micro-Macro Dimensions of the Bosnian Genocides: The Circumplex Model and Violentization Theory
Journal: Aggression and Violent Behavior  Volume:13  Issue:1  Dated:January-February 2008  Pages:45-59
Author(s): Mark A. Winton; Ali Unlu
Date Published: January 2008
Page Count: 15
Type: Research (Applied/Empirical)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This paper examined accounts of the Bosnian genocides to determine if Lonnie Athens’ violentization theory and the circumplex theory from family therapy could be used to explain the genocides.
Abstract: This research analyzed both micro and macro dimensions and the structural and agency components of the Bosnian genocides and found that the perpetrator groups became more violent as they went through the violentization process within a society that transformed into a rigid and enmeshed system. The violentization process involves four stages: 1) brutalization—witnessing, learning and experiencing violence; 2) defiance—using violence to stop violence; 3) violent dominant engagements; 4) virulency—violence and dangerous selves; and 5) extreme virulency—torture, rape, and mass murder, added to address violent behavior that goes beyond killing to include torture and mutilation. The violentization theory was used to examine the micro dimensions of the genocides, while the circumplex theory was used at the macro level to address how organizations and social groups engaged in genocidal behavior in Bosnia. Data on the Bosnian genocides were collected from court transcripts, professional research reports, human rights reports, and books. Texts that provided information about the social conditions and the actions of perpetrators during the Bosnian genocides were also examined. Directed content analysis of the data was used to test the fit of the two theories with the Balkan genocide cases. Limitations of the study are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. Figure, references
Main Term(s): Genocide
Index Term(s): Bosnia and Herzegovina; Crime in foreign countries; Eastern Europe; Kosovo; Politically motivated violent crimes; Violence; Violence causes; Violence prediction
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.