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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 227872 Find in a Library
Title: Under These Conditions: Gender, Parole and the Governance of Reintegration
Journal: British Journal of Criminology  Volume:49  Issue:4  Dated:July 2009  Pages:532-551
Author(s): Sarah Turnbull; Kelly Hannah-Moffat
Date Published: July 2009
Page Count: 20
Sponsoring Agency: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Ottawa, ON K1P 6G4, Canada
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: Using national data on federally sentenced female offenders in Canada, this study extends the theoretical discussion of women prisoners' reintegration into the community by focusing on parole conditions as a form of "targeted governance."
Abstract: The study shows how parole boards view the female parolee as a high-risk individual with various "risk/need factors" that must be addressed by parole conditions. Parole conditions are also framed as techniques of targeted governance, in that they exemplify an integrated exercise of penal power designed to both rehabilitate and repress the parolee. Parole conditions help prepare women for living responsibly in the community while applying modes of surveillance designed to limit opportunities and factors linked to criminal behaviors. Parole and its associated conditions imply that the released offender is not yet capable of self-governance due to personal criminogenic needs and characteristics. As this paper shows, women eligible for and granted parole are required to demonstrate responsibility and a general capacity for self-governance by responding appropriately to parole conditions designed to reintegrate them into the community and reform their criminal behaviors. This analysis drew on national data for the total population of federally sentenced female prisoners in Canada who were eligible for parole in 2000-01. Data extracted from the National Parole Board's decision registry were used to determine the number, type, and rationale for parole conditions. This registry provides detailed justifications of the National Parole Board's initial prerelease decisions and all subsequent postrelease decisions and conduct (e.g., breaches, suspensions, revocations, requests for changes in release conditions, and response to new offenses). 56 references
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Female offenders; Foreign criminal justice research; Parole board; Parole casework; Parole conditions; Parolees; Post-release programs; Social reintegration
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