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NCJ Number: 228926 Find in a Library
Title: Street Youths' Violent Responses to Violent Personal, Vicarious, and Anticipated Strain
Journal: Journal of Criminal Justice  Volume:39  Issue:5  Dated:September-October 2009  Pages:442-451
Author(s): Stephen W. Baron
Date Published: October 2009
Page Count: 10
Sponsoring Agency: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Ottawa, ON K1P 6G4, Canada
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: Netherlands
Annotation: Using general strain theory, this Canadian study examined the influence of experiences of violent victimization, vicarious violent victimization, and 2 forms of anticipated violent victimization on 300 street youths' violent offending.
Abstract: The study found that certain characteristics of youth and their environments made them more likely to develop aggressive behaviors in response to the three forms of exposure to violence. The adoption of criminal coping strategies in response to various types of experiences of violence can be influenced by a number of conditioning factors that can reduce or increase a youth's disposition to engage in criminal behaviors. These factors include level of self-esteem and social support, interaction with deviant peers, deviant attitudes conditioned by deviant subcultures, low behavioral constraint, and negative emotionality. Thus, how a youth interprets and reacts to his/her experiences of violence is what determines subsequent behaviors. Study data were collected between June 2005 and January 2006 in Toronto, Canada. Over this period, 300 youths completed usable interviews on the streets, in shelters, and drop-in centers. To be eligible for inclusion in the study youth had to be between the ages of 16 and 24, not currently in school, not employed, and self-reported living in a shelter or being without a fixed address during the previous 12 months. Independent variables were experiences of the four different forms of violent victimization. The study also measured the six variables outlined in Agnew's general strain theory as conditioning responses to strain: low constraint, negative emotionality, violent values, violent peers, social support, and self-esteem. 4 tables, 4 notes, and 75 references
Main Term(s): Violent juvenile offenders
Index Term(s): Aggression; Canada; Coping; Foreign criminal justice research; Juvenile delinquency factors; Juvenile delinquency theory; Psychological victimization effects; Victim reactions to crime; Victims of violent crime; Violence causes
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