skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 235875 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Epidemiology Work Group Proceedings June 1986 Volume I
Corporate Author: Birch and Davis Associates, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: June 1986
Page Count: 306
Sponsoring Agency: Birch and Davis Associates, Inc
Silver Spring, MD 20910
National Institute on Drug Abuse
Bethesda, MD 20892-9561
NCJRS Photocopy Services
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Contract Number: 271-84-7307
Sale Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse
National Institutes of Health
6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213
Bethesda, MD 20892-9561
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Type: Issue Overview
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Drug use patterns are reported for 18 U.S. cities and Europe as presented at the June 1986 proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group, which was established in 1976 to assist the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in national drug abuse monitoring.
Abstract: The city representatives report increasing numbers of persons who smoke cocaine. This is believed to be due to the increasing availability in certain areas of the country of a preprocessed form of cocaine known as “crack” or ”rock." Particular concern was expressed regarding the reduced time from the first use of “crack” to dependency, which has impacted the demand for treatment services. Generally, indicator data for all forms of cocaine have continued to increase in the cities; however, currently it is difficult to determine the impact that “crack” has had on these statistics. Fourteen cities reported the increasing availability of a potent form of heroin known as “black tar,” “gumball,” or “tootsie roll.” It is insoluble in water and is being smoked rather than used intravenously. The population of heroin users appears to be aging; the gradual increase in client age along with the relative stability in users’ sex and race suggests a stable prevalence of heroin addicts. The use of marijuana is prevalent in all the cities, particularly among individuals under 21 years old. Statistics on AIDS among intravenous (IV) drug users indicate that IV drug use is the most prevalent risk factor for females and the greatest seropositivity rate is for people with both IV and homosexual/bisexual behaviors. Although the country presentations were not representative of all of Western Europe, some general trends are apparent. Heroin addiction is apparently either stabilized or declining, especially among youth; cocaine use is apparently increasing, but not at the rate or prevalence reported recently in the United States.
Main Term(s): Drug use
Index Term(s): California; Colorado; District of Columbia; Florida; Georgia (USA); Illinois; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Missouri; New Jersey; New York; Pennsylvania; Trend analysis; Washington
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.