skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 236193 Find in a Library
Title: Increased Adrenaline to Noradrenaline Ratio is a Superior Indicator of Antemortem Hypothermia Compared With Separate Catecholamine Concentrations
Journal: Journal of Forensic Sciences  Volume:56  Issue:5  Dated:September 2011  Pages:1213-1218
Author(s): Lasse Pakanen, B.M.; Marja-Leena Kortelainen, M.D., Ph.D.; Terttu Sarkioja, M.D., Ph.D.; Katja Porvari, Ph.D.
Date Published: September 2011
Page Count: 6
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The significance of urinary catecholamines and small gastric mucosal bleedings, Wischnewsky’s spots, in postmortem diagnosis of hypothermia deaths was evaluated.
Abstract: Autopsy cases (n = 358) were divided into hypothermia, suspected hypothermia, and control groups. The catecholamine levels did not correlate with the length of the postmortem period. The adrenaline to noradrenaline ratio was most effective in detecting hypothermia (68.9 percent sensitivity, 78.1 percent specificity). The median adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in hypothermia than in control groups. The control group containing mostly sudden cardiac deaths with no cold exposure had a noradrenaline level comparable to the hypothermia groups. The sensitivity and specificity of determining Wischnewsky’s spots in hypothermia deaths were 63.9 percent and 88.3 percent, respectively. The adrenaline to noradrenaline ratio is more suitable in proving antemortem cold stress than either of these independently, and its diagnostic value is comparable to that of Wischnewsky’s spots. (Published Abstract)
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Autopsy; Case studies; Comparative analysis; Death investigations; Finland; Foreign criminal justice research; Forensic sciences; Investigative techniques
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.