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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 43380 Find in a Library
Title: RECENT EMPLOYMENT AND EXPENDITURE TRENDS IN CITY POLICE DEPARTMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES
Journal: JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE  Volume:5  Issue:2  Dated:(SUMMER 1977)  Pages:119-147
Author(s): A R ODONI
Corporate Author: Pergamon Press, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 29
Sponsoring Agency: National Science Foundation
Arlington, VA 22230
Pergamon Press, Inc
Elmsford, NY 10523
Type: Statistics
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: TRENDS IN EMPLOYMENT AND EXPENDITURES IN 33 MAJOR CITY POLICE DEPARTMENTS ARE SEPARATED INTO DEPARTMENTS WITH MORE THAN AND THOSE WITH FEWER THAN 2000 EMPLOYEES AND EXAMINED FOR THE YEARS 1959 THROUGH 1973.
Abstract: AMONG ITEMS CONSIDERED WERE: SIZE OF THE GROWTH IN CITY EXPENDITURES FOR POLICE ON AN ABSOLUTE BASIS AND IN RELATION TO EXPENDITURES FOR THE PROVISION FOR OTHER SERVICES, CHANGES IN EXPENDITURES FOR SALARIES AND WAGES AND FOR THE VARIOUS TYPES OF FRINGE BENEFITS, SALARY AND WAGE INCREASES FOR SWORN POLICE EMPLOYEES AND FOR SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL IN INFLATED AND CONSTANT DOLLARS, AND CHANGES IN SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF POLICE WORK FORCES. ALTHOUGH LARGE VARIATIONS IN TOTAL GROWTH OF POLICE EXPENDITURES WERE OBSERVED FROM CITY TO CITY, GROWTH RATES WERE REMARKABLY SIMILAR FOR BOTH LARGE AND SMALL DEPARTMENTS. AVERAGE EXPENDITURES MORE THAN TRIPLED DURING THE 14-YEAR PERIOD; EQUIVALENT ANNUAL GROWTH RATES WERE ABOUT TWICE AS HIGH FOR 1966-73 AS THEY WERE FOR 1959-66. THE TOTAL POPULATION OF THE LARGE-FORCE CITIES GREW ABOUT 0.6 PERCENT DURING THE PERIOD. THE SMALLER CITIES GREW 3.7 PERCENT. PER CAPITA SPENDING ON POLICE GREW ABOUT 8.9 PERCENT IN LARGE AND 8.8 PERCENT IN SMALL CITIES. LABOR COSTS WERE 90 PERCENT OF THE BUDGET FOR LARGE AND ABOUT 88 PERCENT OF THE BUDGET FOR SMALL DEPARTMENTS. THIS REMAINED REMARKABLY STABLE OVER THE YEARS. IN LARGE CITIES, POLICE EMPLOYMENT INCREASED 40 PERCENT, WITH A 35 PERCENT INCREASE FOR SWORN PERSONNEL. IN THE SMALLER CITIES, THE INCREASE WAS 49 PERCENT AND 45 PERCENT FOR SWORN PERSONNEL. SALARIES FOR NONSUPERVISORY PERSONNEL HAVE MORE THAN DOUBLED DURING THE PERIOD; IN CONSTANT DOLLARS, THE REAL WAGE GAIN HAS BEEN 48 PERCENT. THIS IS MORE THAN TWICE AS HIGH AS FOR THE AVERAGE NONGOVERNMENT WORKER. ALTHOUGH DATA WERE UNAVAILABLE FOR THE FIVE LARGEST CITIES, THERE ARE INDICATIONS THAT A SIMILAR SALARY INCREASE TOOK PLACE FOR SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL. FRINGE BENEFITS VARIED WIDELY FROM DEPARTMENT TO DEPARTMENT BUT GENERALLY INCREASED IN CITIES OF ALL SIZES. HOWEVER, BASIC RETIREMENT PROVISIONS SEEMED TO HAVE CHANGED LITTLE. TWO NOTEWORTHY CHANGES HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN PERSONNEL PRACTICES. ONE IS THE HIRING OF CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES, WHO GENERALLY COMMAND LOWER SALARIES, TO PERFORM ROUTINE CLERICAL TASKS; THE OTHER IS AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF OFFICERS WITH RANK OF SERGEANT OR ABOVE. AT THE SAME TIME POLICE EXPENDITURES WERE INCREASING, CITY EXPENDITURES FOR ALL SERVICES WERE INCREASING. WHILE POLICE EXPENDITURES GENERALLY GREW FASTER THAN EXPENDITURES FOR FIRE DEPARTMENTS, SANITATION, AND HIGHWAYS, THEY WERE LOWER THAN EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION, PUBLIC WELFARE, AND DEBT SERVICE. AS A RESULT, THE PROPORTION OF BUDGET FOR POLICE INCREASED IN SOME CITIES, DECREASED IN OTHERS, AND REMAINED FAIRLY CONSTANT OVERALL.
Index Term(s): Management; Municipal police; Operating costs; Pay rates; Police personnel; Police resource allocation; Statistics
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=43380

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