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NCJ Number: 43905 Find in a Library
Title: CRIMINOLOGICAL DATA AS INDICATORS ON CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY (FROM CRIME AND INDUSTRIALIZATION, 1974 - SEE NCJ-43910)
Author(s): N CHRISTIE
Corporate Author: Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology
University of Stockholm
Sweden
Date Published: 1974
Page Count: 26
Sponsoring Agency: Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology
104 05 Stockholm, Sweden
Type: Statistics
Format: Document
Language: English; Russian
Country: Sweden
Annotation: THE AUTHOR USES CRIMINOLOGICAL DATA AS INDICATORS OF SOCIAL CONDITIONS AND DISCUSSES POSSIBILITIES FOR REFORMS.
Abstract: THE AUTHOR VIEWS THE INCREASE IN CRIME (OR THE NUMBER OF CASES FORMALLY DEALT WITH) AS AN INDICATOR OF A CHANGE IN THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY, A CHANGE AWAY FROM MAJOR RELIANCE ON INFORMAL CONTROL OF THE CITIZENS TO MAJOR RELIANCE ON TYPES OF FORMAL CONTROL. THIS TREND IS AN INDICATOR, HE NOTES, OF A TYPE OF SOCIETY WHERE THE UNITS HAVE GROWN SO BIG AND THE LIVING SO SEGMENTED THAT PEOPLE HAVE LOST TRACK OF EACH OTHER. A PEAK IN WOMEN'S CRIME AND THE INCREASE IN JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE CLEAR REFLECTIONS OF UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF IMPORTANT FORMS OF PARTICIPATION IN SOCIETY. THIS TREND IS SEEN AS A REFLECTION OF SOCIETY'S SUCCESS IN KEEPING YOUNG PEOPLE OUTSIDE THE MAINSTREAM OF SOCIETY BY INCREASING THE NUMBER OF YEARS SPENT IN SCHOOL AND IN KEEPING WOMEN AS OUTSIDERS WITH REGARD TO PAID WORK. CRIME CONTROL IN RAPIDLY INDUSTRIALIZED SOCIETIES SEEMS TO WORK ACCORDING TO THE OLD MODEL OF FIGHTING INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE VIOLATED CUSTOMS THAT WERE HIGHLY RELEVANT IN A SMALLER SOCIETY. HUGE UNITS WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF DIVISION OF LABOR, SUCH AS THE GIANT FACTORY, THE CARTEL, THE HUGE HOSPITAL, THE BUREAUCRACY, CREATE NEW AND UNSOLVED PROBLEMS FOR AGENCIES TO CONTROL. THE AUTHOR VIEWS THE SOLUTION IN POLITICAL DECISIONS WHICH INFLUENCE THE GENERAL SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY. HE FAVORS DECENTRALIZED FORMS OF SOCIAL CONTROL AND MORE GENERAL CONTACT WITH LOCAL VALUES. THIS IMPLIES GREATER RELIANCE ON LOCAL MORES CONCERNING RIGHT AND WRONG AND GREATER RELIANCE ON NEIGHBORHOOD POLICE AND LOCAL COURTS. THERE IS A NEED TO BREAK DOWN ORGANIZATIONS WHICH ARE GROWING BIGGER AND MORE COMPLEX (E.G., PRIVATE FIRMS, FACTORIES, STATE AND MUNICIPAL BUREAUCRACIES) IN ORDER TO COMBAT CRIME IN THESE SECTORS. -- IN ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN.
Index Term(s): Crime Causes; Crime Statistics; Social conditions
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