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NCJ Number: 47900 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: DEVIANCE AND 'CONTINGENT BEINGS' - TOWARD CONVERGENCE OF ACTION AND REACTION PERSPECTIVES (FROM ISRAEL STUDIES IN CRIMINOLOGY, 1977, BY S GIORA SHOHAM - SEE NCJ-47896)
Author(s): M ROTENBERG
Corporate Author: Nateev - Printing and Publishing Enterprises Ltd
Israel
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 17
Sponsoring Agency: Nateev - Printing and Publishing Enterprises Ltd
Tel Aviv, Israel
US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare
Washington, DC 20214
Grant Number: IROI-MH23793
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: Israel
Annotation: A MODEL OF 'CONTINGENT BEING' IS SET FORTH WHICH MAY EXPLAIN COMPLEX AND FUNCTIONAL PATTERNS OF DEVIANCE SUCH AS PRISON SOCIAL TYPES, BUT WHICH SHOULD ALSO BE APPLICABLE TO OTHER DEVIANT AND CONFORMING TYPES.
Abstract: THIS MODEL IS AN ATTEMPT TO INTEGRATE LABELING-REACTION THEORY WITH STRUCTURAL-ACTION OR ROLE OPPORTUNITY PERSPECTIVES. THE CONCEPT OF CONTINGENT BEING CONCERNS THE WAY ONE IS IDENTIFIED BY OTHERS AND THE WAY ONE IDENTIFIES ONE'S OWN BEING. THE MODEL ASSUMES THAT THERE ARE TWO BASIC LEVELS OF EXISTENTIAL OR EXPERIMENTAL BEINGS -- A PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LEVEL -- AND THAT THE SECONDARY STATE OF BEING IS CONTINGENT ON THE PRIMARY ONE. THE TERMS PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ROLES ARE USED AS SYNONYMS OF 'ASCRIBED' AND 'ACHIEVED' ROLE CONCEPTIONS. THE CONCEPT OF CONTINGENT BEINGS CAN BE FURTHER SUBDIVIDED INTO OTHER DIMENSIONS. FOR INSTANCE, A PRIMARY LABEL REFERS TO ONE'S ESTABLISHED SOCIAL SELF-IDENTITY AND IS RELATED TO POSITION, RANK, AND CLASS. A SECONDARY LABEL REFERS TO A NEW OR ADDITIONAL LABEL TO BE ASSIGNED TO A PERSON. IT MAY BE DESCRIPTIVE OR CATEGORIC, POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE. VALUATIVE REACTIONS BY THOSE OUTSIDE THE SELF FORM THE DIMENSION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY 'OTHERS.' PRIMARY INVOLVEMENT REFERS TO THE NATURE OF ONE'S ACTUAL ENACTMENT OF ONE'S PRIMARY ROLES AND LABELS. SECONDARY INVOLVEMENT IS USED IN REFERRING TO INVOLVEMENT IN SECONDARY ROLES OR LABELS. THE MODEL OF CONTINGENT BEING IS ILLUSTRATED THROUGH ITS APPLICATION TO PRISONERS. THE PRISON SOCIAL TYPES ARE LABELED IN FOUR WAYS: INMATE, RIGHT GUY, SQUARE, AND POLITICIAN. THE PROCESSES OF IDENTITY STRIPPING, DEGRADATION, AND NEGATIVE REACTIONS ARE SET IN OPERATION UPON ENTRANCE INTO PRISON, LARGELY MORTIFYING THE PRIMARY BEING OF ALL PRISONERS. PRISONERS ARE DENIED THE CHANCE TO ENACT AGE, SEX, AND KINSHIP ROLES. THUS, SECONDARY REHABILITATIVE OPPORTUNITIES BECOME IRRELEVANT AND MEANINGLESS, AS LONG AS THE PROBLEM OF PRIMARY BEING IS NOT SOLVED. IN ORDER TO SOLVE THAT PROBLEM, THE PRISONER MUST CHOOSE EITHER TO ACCEPT THE 'NONPERSON' ROLE AND THE DEGRADED VALUATIVE-REACTIONS ASSIGNED BY PRISON GUARDS AND OTHER PRISONERS OR TO ENACT A QUASI-PRIMARY ROLE FOR WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL CAN RECEIVE SOME RESPECT VALUATIONS FROM THE GUARDS AND PRISONERS. MOST PRISONERS RESOLVE THE DEPRIVED STATE OF PRIMARY BEING TO SOME EXTENT BY ENACTING QUASI-SUBSTITUTE ROLES. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT COMPLEX LEVELS OF CONDUCT CAN ONLY BE UNDERSTOOD BY ASSESSING ACTIONS AND REACTIONS IN TERMS OF THE CONTINGENT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OPPORTUNITIES FOR BEING. THIS MODEL ASSUMES THAT THE HUMAN RACE IS NEITHER ESSENTIALLY GOOD NOR ESSENTIALLY DAMNED, BUT THAT ITS PRIMARY BEING CAN BE RECONVERTED THROUGH THE SAME VARIABLES OF TOTAL INVOLVEMENT (ACTIONS) AND REINFORCING 'OTHERS' (REACTIONS). REFERENCES AND DIAGRAMS ARE PROVIDED. (AUTHOR ABSTRACT MODIFIED--JSP)
Index Term(s): Definitions; Deviance; Israel; Models; Theory
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=47900

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