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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 50025 Find in a Library
Title: CRIME AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN SOCIETY - PATTERNS OF CRIMINALITY IN NINETEENTH CENTURY GERMANY AND FRANCE
Author(s): H ZEHR
Corporate Author: Littlefield, Adams and Co
United States of America

Croom Helm Ltd
2-10 St John's Road
United Kingdom
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 188
Sponsoring Agency:
London, SW 11, England
Danforth Foundation
St Louis, MO 63105
Littlefield, Adams and Co
Totowa, NJ 07512
Talladega College
Talladega, AL 35160
Sale Source: Littlefield, Adams and Co
81 Adams Drive
Totowa, NJ 07512
United States of America

Croom Helm Ltd
2-10 St John's Road
London, SW 11,
United Kingdom
Type: Historical Overview
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: THIS HISTORICAL WORK FOCUSES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIMINAL ACTIVITY AND THE PROCESSES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION IN FRANCE AND GERMANY BETWEEN 1830 AND 1914.
Abstract: THIS STUDY ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN CRIME AS A RATIONAL RESPONSE TO A SITUATION OR A PROBLEM THAT SERVES A FUNCTION FOR BOTH THE OFFENDER AND SOCIETY. IT IS THEORIZED THAT CRIME CAN SERVE AS A SAFETY VALVE FOR SOCIETY BY ALLOWING THE RELEASE OF HOSTILITIES AND THE LESSENING OF FRUSTRATIONS BEFORE THEY ACCUMULATE AND BECOME DIRECTED AGAINST THE FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIETY OR AGAINST THE STATE. THE BROAD STATISTICAL PATTERNS OF CRIME OVER THE 19TH CENTURY ARE ANALYZED IN TERMS OF THE MAIN TRENDS IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL LIFE. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND THE RISING STANDARD OF LIVING ASSOCIATED WITH PROSPERITY IS STUDIED. DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN CRIME ARE EXAMINED TO DETERMINE IF THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN THE TYPES OF CRIMES COMMITTED AND IF IT CAN BE ISOLATED. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATTERNS OF DELINQUENCY AND THE SOCIAL UPHEAVAL WHICH ACCOMPANIED INDUSTRALIZATION AND URBANIZATION ARE REVIEWED SO AS TO ESTABLISH ANY SIGNIFICANT CORRELATION. CRIME CAUSES ARE VIEWED WITHIN THE CONFINES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION, RELATIVE DEPRIVATION, AND SOCIAL CONFLICT MODELS, AND THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ARE DRAWN FROM THIS ANALYSIS: (1) VIOLENCE BECAME MORE FREQUENT BUT LESS SERIOUS DURING THE 19TH CENTURY, (2) URBAN CRIME WAS NOT MORE VIOLENT THAN RURAL CRIME, (3) TRADITION WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF VIOLENCE PATTERNS AT THE END OF THE CENTURY, (4) TOTAL INCIDENCE OF VIOLENCE WAS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO THEFT AND POSITIVELY RELATED TO THE BUSINESS CYCLE DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE CENTURY, (5) ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION WAS POSITIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH VIOLENCE, AND (6) HOMICIDE ROSE RELATIVE TO SUICIDE IN TIMES OF PROSPERITY AND HIGH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION BUT DROPPED RELATIVELY IN TIMES OF CRISIS. THESE CONCLUSIONS STRESS THE FACT THAT URBANIZATION DOES NOT NECESSARILY LEAD TO SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT INCREASES IN VIOLENCE DURING URBAN GROWTH REPRESENT THE RETENTION OF TRADITIONAL PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR IN A NEW SETTING. IT IS RECOGNIZED THAT SOCIAL TENSIONS ARE HIGHER IN RURAL SOCIETIES THAN WAS PREVIOUSLY ASSUMED. TAVERN BRAWLS, FAMILY SQUABBLES, AND HOMICIDAL FEUDS SERVED AS A TRADITIONAL OUTLET FOR FRUSTRATION AND AN EXPRESSION OF SOCIAL CONFLICT. AN INDEX, TABULAR DATA, A BIBLIOGRAPHY, NOTES, AND APPENDIXES DETAILING STATISTICAL ANALYSES ARE PROVIDED. (JCP)
Index Term(s): Alcohol-Related Offenses; Behavioral and Social Sciences; France; Germany; Industrialization; Rural area studies; Rural urban comparisons; Social change; Social conditions; Urban area studies; Urban criminality; Violent crimes
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=50025

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