skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 50745 Find in a Library
Title: INDIVIDUALITY OF BLOOD AND BLOODSTAINS
Journal: CANADIAN SOCIETY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE  Volume:11  Issue:2  Dated:(JUNE 1978)  Pages:83-122
Author(s): J B BAIRD
Corporate Author: Canadian Soc of Forensic Science
Canada
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 40
Sponsoring Agency: Canadian Soc of Forensic Science
Ottawa, Ontario K1K OH2, Canada
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: Canada
Annotation: THE HISTORY OF BLOOD CHARACTERIZATION IS TRACED, AND THE FEATURES AND FORENSIC APPLICATIONS OF SEVERAL BLOOD-GROUPING SYSTEMS ARE SUMMARIZED.
Abstract: THE HISTORICAL REVIEW REVEALS THAT IT WAS NOT UNTIL THE 1840'S THAT SCIENTISTS COULD RELIABLY IDENTIFY BLOOD AS BLOOD. EARLY TESTS WERE DESIGNED TO DETECT THE PEROXIDASE-LIKE ACTIVITY OF HEMOGLOBIN. IN 1901, A PROCEDURE FOR DISTINGUISHING HUMAN BLOOD FROM OTHER BLOOD WAS FOUND. AT ABOUT THE SAME TIME, THE ABO BLOOD GROUPINGS WERE DISCOVERED. THE M, N, AND P GROUPS WERE DISCOVERED IN 1927, FOLLOWED BY DISCOVERY OF THE RH FACTOR IN 1940. WORLD WAR II BROUGHT THE DISCOVERY OF A NUMBER OF NEW BLOOD-GROUPING SYSTEMS. ADVANCES IN BIOCHEMISTRY, GENETICS, AND IMMUNOLOGY CONTRIBUTED TO FURTHER ISOLATION OF GENETICALLY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS (E.G., HEMOGLOBINS, PLASMA PROTEINS, RED CELL ENZYMES) IN BLOOD AND OTHER BODY FLUIDS. SUCH SYSTEMS, OFTEN TERMED POLYMORPHISMS, HAVE REVOLUTIONIZED FORENSIC BLOOD GROUPING. SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS AND FORENSIC APPLICATIONS ARE PRESENTED FOR THE FOLLOWING BLOOD-GROUPING SYSTEMS: THE ABO SYSTEM (THE OLDEST ANB BEST KNOWN); THE MN SYSTEM (OFTEN USED IN DISPUTED PATERNITY STUDIES); THE RH SYSTEM; SIX DIFFERENT ENZYME POLYMORPHISMS; AND SERUM PROTEIN POLYMORPHISMS. SYSTEMS UNDER DEVELOPMENT ARE ALSO NOTED. ILLUSTRATIONS OF BLOOD ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT AND RESULTS ARE PROVIDED. A REVIEW OF THE GROWTH OF FORENSIC SCIENCE (PARTICULARLY FORENSIC SEROLOGY) IN CANADA IS INCLUDED, TOGETHER WITH A LIST OF REFERENCES. (LKM)
Index Term(s): Blood/body fluid analysis; Canada
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=50745

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.