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NCJ Number: 50787 Find in a Library
Title: SUPERVISION IN THE COMMUNITY
Journal: HOWARD JOURNAL OF PENOLOGY AND CRIME PREVENTION  Volume:17  Issue:1  Dated:(1978)  Pages:23-31
Author(s): C THOMAS
Corporate Author: Howard League for Penal Reform
United Kingdom

Scottish Academic Press Ltd
United Kingdom
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 9
Sponsoring Agency: Howard League for Penal Reform
London, N19 3NL, England
Scottish Academic Press Ltd
Edinburgh, EH7 5JK, Scotland
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: THE DIVERSIFICATION OF ACTIVITIES AND TREATMENT MODES FOR OFFENDERS IN THE COMMUNITY, RATHER THAN RELYING SOLELY ON SUPERVISION, IS DISCUSSED.
Abstract: IN ENGLAND, POLICIES TO DEAL WITH THE INCREASE IN CRIME FOCUS ON THE CRIME PREVENTIVE ROLE OF POLICE, DETERRENT EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT, CONTAINMENT EFFECTS OF IMPRISONMENT, AND TREATMENT EFFECTS OF PENAL AGENCIES IN REDUCING THE CRIMINALITY OF THOSE IN CONTACT WITH THEM. WITH REGARD TO TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS IN GENERAL, STUDIES INDICATE THAT NO ONE TYPE OF SENTENCING MEASURE IS MORE LIKELY TO ACHIEVE REFORM OF AN OFFENDER THAN ANOTHER. SINCE PENAL POLICY IS DESIGNED MORE FOR ITS LIKELY GENERAL EFFECTS THAN FOR POSSIBLE OUTCOMES WITH CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS, THIS FINDING MAKES IT MORE DIFFICULT TO JUSTIFY SUBSTANTIAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON PROMOTING NEW FORMS OF TREATMENT. THE PARAMOUNT OBJECTIVE OF SENTENCING IS THE PROTECTION OF SOCIETY. SENTENCERS WHO ARE RELUCTANT TO USE CUSTODY FOR PETTY RECIDIVISTS MAY SEE NO ALTERNATIVE IN VIEW OF THE PERSISTENCE OF OFFENDERS AND THEIR LACK OF RESPONSE TO NONCUSTODIAL PENALTIES. THE TYPICAL PROBATION OFFICER IS NOT CONCERNED WITH TREATMENT BUT RATHER WITH THE SUPERVISION OF OFFENDERS IN THE COMMUNITY. MUCH OF THE DIVERSIFICATION RELATED TO SUPERVISION IN THE COMMUNITY REFLECTS A GROWING AWARENESS OF BASIC SOCIAL NEEDS AND A DETERMINATION TO COORDINATE EXISTING SERVICES, TO PROVIDE NEW FACILITIES WHERE GAPS ARE FOUND, AND TO DEVISE WAYS OF HELPING CLIENTS MAKE THE BEST USE OF WHAT IS AVAILABLE. THE PROBLEM OF MANAGEMENT IS TO KNOW WHAT ELEMENTS WILL PRODUCE A SATISFACTORY OUTCOME AND HOW THESE ELEMENTS CAN BE ORGANIZED AND PROVIDED TO HELP A LARGER PROPORTION OF CLIENTS. THIS KNOWLEDGE IMPLIES A 'STRATEGY OF SEARCH' INVOLVING THE MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING SERVICES AND THE SEARCH FOR WAYS OF EXTENDING THE RANGE OF NONCUSTODIAL METHODS AND FACILITIES IN THE COMMUNITY BY SMALL-SCALE, LOW-COST, POSSIBLY SHORT-LIFE SCHEMES. THE SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODY MAY NEED TO INCLUDE A REEXAMINATION OF THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL IN THE COMMUNITY. EXPERIMENTS MUST BE ABANDONED IF THEY FAIL TO ACHIEVE REASONABLE COST AND EFFECTIVENESS TARGETS. THERE IS A GAP BETWEEN PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS OF POLICE AND PENAL EFFECTIVENESS AND ACTUAL EFFECTIVENESS, AND ALTERNATIVES TO CUSTODY MUST BE ACCEPTABLE TO THE PUBLIC. CRITICAL EMPIRICAL FINDINGS ABOUT TREATMENT OUTCOMES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED, RATHER THAN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS. HOWEVER, IT IS NOTED THAT COMMUNITY-BASED SUPERVISION IS USUALLY PREFERABLE TO INCARCERATION. REFERENCES ARE INCLUDED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization; Community-based corrections (adult); Offenders; Probation; Sentencing/Sanctions; Supervised release; Treatment
Note: BASED ON PAPER PRESENTED TO THE CHIEF PROBATION OFFICERS' RESIDENTIAL CONFERENCE, NOVEMBER 1977
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=50787

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