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NCJ Number: 50809 Find in a Library
Title: ANNALS OF CRIME - THE LOCKHEED INCIDENT
Journal: NEW YORKER  Volume:53  Dated:(JANUARY 23 AND 30, 1978)  Pages:PART 1 P 48-50,54-56,58,60-66,69-74,PART 2 - P 74-91
Author(s): R SHAPLEN
Corporate Author: New Yorker Magazine, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 39
Sponsoring Agency: New Yorker Magazine, Inc
New York, NY 10036
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE LOCKHEED BRIBERY SCANDAL IN JAPAN PROVOKED A BROAD AND LINGERING CATHARSIS IN THE JAPANESE POLITICAL SYSTEM. THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONFUSION CAUSED BY THE CASE HAS CHANGED INTO A NATIONAL SELF-SEARCHING FOR NEW ANSWERS.
Abstract: INCIDENTS INVOLVING THE LOCKHEED CORPORATION BECAME PUBLIC FOLLOWING HEARINGS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE ON MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS. PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT TESTIMONY WAS GIVEN BY THE PRESIDENT OF LOCKHEED, A. CARL KOTCHIAN, REVEALING THAT OVER $12 MILLION IN BRIBES AND UNLAWFUL COMMISSIONS WERE PAID TO JAPANESE OFFICIALS IN THE EARLY 1970'S. SPECIFIC EVENTS INCLUDED THE PAYMENT THROUGH A COURIER OF ONE-HALF BILLION YEN (ABOUT $1,600,00) IN BRIBES TO THE JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER, KAKUEI TANAKA. THE PURPOSE OF THE BRIBERY WAS TO EXPEDITE THE SALE OF TRISTAR AIRCRAFT TO ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS. THE HISTORY OF THE LOCKHEED AFFAIR NOTES THAT THE USE OF COMMERCIAL BRIBERY HAS BEEN EXTENSIVE IN THE FOREIGN SALES PROGRAMS OF HIGHLY COMPETITIVE INDUSTRIES. ALTHOUGH LOCKHEED HAS NOT BEEN THE ONLY AIRCRAFT COMPANY TO ENGAGE IN SUCH ACTIVITY, IT IS FELT THAT LOCKHEED HAS BEEN A PACESETTER IN THE INDUSTRY, BEGINNING WITH ITS EFFORTS TO SELL F-104 PLANES TO JAPAN IN THE LATE 1950'S. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUSINESS AND POLITICS IN JAPAN REMAINS EXTREMELY CLOSE, EVEN AFTER THE SCANDAL WHICH RESULTED IN THE RESIGNATION OF PRIME MINISTER TANAKA. ALTHOUGH THE FORM AND PRACTICE OF JAPANESE POLITICS ARE CHANGING, THERE REMAINS AN AIR OF UNCERTAINTY AMONG THE JAPANESE PUBLIC. UNLIKE PREVIOUS SCANDALS, THE LOCKHEED CASE HAS APPARENTLY FORCED THE PUBLIC TO CONFRONT THE NEED FOR CHANGE IN TRADITIONAL POLITICAL PRACTICES, AND FOR A REAPPRAISAL OF BASIC VALUES. THE JAPANESE WERE DISMAYED BY THE EVENTS, YET THEY CONCOMMITANTLY FELT A CERTAIN PRIDE IN THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS WHICH UNCOVERED THE BRIBERY. IT IS SPECULATED THAT THE RESIDUAL EFFECT OF THE SCANDAL WILL BE A POLITICAL APATHY THAT WILL LAST UNTIL JAPANESE POLITICS BECOME LESS DEPENDENT UPON BUSINESS MONEY.
Index Term(s): Aircraft; Bribery; Corruption of public officials; Japan; Public Attitudes/Opinion; White collar crime
Note: ARTICLE IN TWO PARTS
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