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NCJ Number: 51169 Find in a Library
Title: JUVENILE COURT MOVEMENT - THE ILLINOIS EXPERIENCE
Author(s): G PARKER
Corporate Author: University of Toronto Press
Marketing Manager
Canada
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 54
Sponsoring Agency: University of Toronto Press
Toronto, Ontario M4Y 2W8, Canada
Type: Thesis/Dissertation
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: Canada
Annotation: THE ORIGINS AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE JUVENILE COURT IN COOK COUNTY, ILL., ARE EXAMINED, WITH REFERENCE TO THE PHILOSOPHIES AND ACTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL REFORMERS, COURT OFFICIALS, EDUCATORS, AND SOCIAL WORKERS.
Abstract: THE DISCUSSION FOCUSES ON THE SOCIAL SITUATION IN CHICAGO AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY THAT ENGENDERED THE JUVENILE COURT MOVEMENT, AND ON THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO DISENCHANTMENT WITH THE COURT AS A 'CHILD-SAVING' INSTITUTION. IT IS NOTED THAT THE PRESENCE OF SUCH REFORMERS AS JANE ADDAMS AND THE OTHER RESIDENTS OF HULL HOUSE, THE JUVENILE REFORM EFFORTS OF THE MIDDLE-CLASS MEMBERS OF THE CHICAGO WOMAN'S CLUB, THE APPOINTMENT OF ENLIGHTENED CITIZENS TO STATE BOARDS, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO WERE AMONG THE ELEMENTS OF A UNIQUE REFORM CLIMATE IN WHICH THE SENTIMENTAL, UNTHINKING PHILANTHROPY OF THE 19TH CENTURY GAVE WAY TO SOCIAL THOUGHT ALLIED TO POLITICAL ACTION. THE CAMPAIGN OF THE WOMAN'S CLUB (WITH THE HELP OF THE CHICAGO BAR ASSOCIATION) THAT RESULTED IN PASSAGE OF THE LAW ESTABLISHING A SEPARATE JUVENILE COURT IS RECOUNTED, AND THE ACTIVITIES OF THE COURT IN ITS FIRST 10 YEARS ARE REVIEWED. PHILOSOPHIES CONCERNING THE CAUSES AND APPROPRIATE RESPONSES TO DELINQUENCY ESPOUSED BY EARLY JUVENILE COURT JUDGES, SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, EDUCATORS AND OTHERS ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT COOK COUNTY'S JUVENILE COURT WAS FORMED ON A 'HAND-ME-DOWN' BASIS--POLICE OFFICERS SECONDING AS PROBATION OFFICERS, PROBATION OFFICERS PAID FROM PRIVATE SOURCES, FACILITIES LENT BY COOK COUNTY--AND THAT THIS MAKESHIFT QUALITY AND LACK OF FORMALLY CONSTITUTED AND FINANCED ORGANIZATION CAUSED SERIOUS PROBLEMS FROM WHICH THE COURT NEVER FULLY RECOVERED. CHANGES IN THE ATTITUDES OF JUVENILE REFORMERS, WHO APPARENTLY CAME TO BELIEVE THAT THE JUVENILE COURT WAS NOT THE PANACEA ONCE ENVISIONED, ARE TRACED. ATTACKS ON THE COURT'S PROBATION ACTIVITIES ARE RECOUNTED, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SCHISM BETWEEN THE COURT AND THE SCHOOLS IS DISCUSSED. IN CONSIDERING THE FAILURE OF THE COOK COUNTY JUVENILE COURT TO LIVE UP TO REFORMERS' EXPECTATIONS, IT IS POINTED OUT THAT, PRESUMABLY, THE FAMILY HAS ALWAYS BEEN AT FAULT FOR THE MISBEHAVIOR AND SUFFERING OF CHILDREN. THE AUXILIARY CAUSE HAS CHANGED FROM TIME TO TIME: FROM IDLENESS, TO ALCOHOLISM, TO PAUPERISM, TO POVERTY, TO POOR HOUSING, TO WORKING MOTHERS, TO UNLOVING FATHERS. THE PROPOSED CURE HAS ALWAYS INVOLVED THE INTERVENTION OF AN OUTSIDE AGENCY, WHICH SUPPOSEDLY COULD DO MUCH MORE THAN THE FAMILY OR PARENTS. FIRST THAT AGENCY WAS THE POORHOUSE, THEN APPRENTICESHIP, TRANSPORTATION TO OVERSEAS COLONIES, THE HOUSE OF REFUGE, THE REFORMATORY, THE 'FRIENDLY VISITOR,' THE COUNTY AGENT, THE SCHOOL. THE JUVENILE COURT SHOULD HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE LIST OF CHILD-SAVING DEVICES, BUT, PERHAPS BECAUSE IT DEALT WITH CHILDREN WHO HAD ALREADY LOST THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY, IT WAS NOT. (LKM)
Index Term(s): Illinois; Juvenile courts; Reform; Social work
Note: REPRINTED FROM UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LAW JOURNAL, N 26 (1976) P 253-306 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW - DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=51169

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