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NCJ Number: 51201 Find in a Library
Title: PRISON ARCHITECTURE - ARE 'ADVANCED PRACTICES' DEAD?
Journal: CORRECTIONS MAGAZINE  Volume:4  Issue:3  Dated:(SEPTEMBER 1978)  Pages:42-47
Author(s): J BLACKMORE
Corporate Author: Criminal Justice Publications, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 6
Sponsoring Agency: Criminal Justice Publications, Inc
New York, NY 10017
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE BACKGROUND AND DECLINE IN INFLUENCE OF THE NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, WHICH REVIEWS STATE AND LOCAL APPLICATIONS FOR FEDERAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION GRANTS, IS DISCUSSED.
Abstract: A 1970 AMENDMENT TO THE OMNIBUS CRIME CONTROL AND SAFE STREETS ACT PROVIDED FOR FEDERAL GRANTS FOR LOCAL AND STATE CORRECTIONS FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION IF THEY INCORPORATE 'ADVANCED PRACTICES' IN THEIR PLANNING AND DESIGN. LATER, LEAA ADOPTED THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS'S 'GUIDELINES FOR THE PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR REGIONAL AND COMMUNITY CORRECTIONS CENTERS FOR ADULTS.' THE GUIDELINES DO NOT DEFINE ADVANCED PRACTICES NOR DO THEY SPECIFY THE KINDS OF DESIGNS AND PROGRAMS WHICH SHOULD BE FUNDED. INSTEAD, THEY PROVIDE OPTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR CORRECTION PLANNING AND DESIGN. LEAA AWARDED A CONTRACT TO THE UNIVERSITY TO MONITOR ALL LEAA CAPITAL FUNDING REQUESTS IN CORRECTIONS ACCORDING TO THE GUIDELINE; THIS WAS KNOWN AS THE CLEARINGHOUSE. FEATURES OF THE 'CLEARINGHOUSE STYLE' INCLUDED SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY, BARLESS WINDOWS, SMALL-UNIT MANAGEMENT, AND DECENTRALIZED KITCHENS AND LEISURE FACILITIES. BETWEEN 1971 AND 1978, MORE THAN 700 PROJECT APPLICATIONS INVOLVING SEVERAL BILLION DOLLARS WERE MONITORED BY THE CLEARINGHOUSE, BUT IN RECENT YEARS CORRECTIONS OFFICIALS AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS HAVE BECOME INCREASINGLY SKEPTICAL ABOUT THE JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE CLEARINGHOUSE. THE CLEARINGHOUSE PROMOTES A THOROUGH EXAMINATION OF ALL THE COMPONENTS OF A LOCAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM, INCLUDING LAW ENFORCEMENT AND COURT PROCEDURES, CRIME RATES, AND POSSIBLE DETENTION ALTERNATIVES AS WELL AS PROJECTED INSTITUTIONAL NEEDS. IT ENCOURAGES COMPLETE EXAMINATIONS OF POSSIBLE DIVERSION, RELEASE-ON-RECOGNIZANCE, PRERELEASE, PROBATION, AND NONRESIDENTIAL ALTERNATIVES FOR OVERCROWDED INSTITUTIONS BEFORE PLANNING FOR FACILITY CONSTRUCTION. THE DECLINE IN CLEARINGHOUSE INFLUENCE CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO PRIVATE ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS WHO FEEL THE CLEARINGHOUSE IS COMPETING UNFAIRLY AGAINST THEM, CORRECTIONS OFFICIALS AND LOCAL LEGISLATORS WHO RESENT OUTSIDE AUTHORITIES TELLING THEM WHAT TO DO, CORRECTIONS HARDWARE MANUFACTURERS WHO HAVE A VESTED INTEREST IN SELLING THEIR PRODUCTS, AND A GROWING NUMBER OF ANTI-CLEARINGHOUSE BUREAUCRATS AT LEAA'S CENTRAL OFFICE. THEY CRITICIZE THE CLEARINGHOUSE FOR ITS LACK OF ORIGINALITY, FOR PRESSURING STATES AND LOCALITIES TO JUSTIFY THEIR NEEDS FOR NEW FACILITIES, FOR INFRINGING UPON THE PRIVATE SECTOR, AND FOR SUGGESTING CONCEPTS WHICH ARE INAPPROPRIATE FOR THEIR NEEDS. SEVERAL OTHER CRITICISMS ARE DISCUSSED. (DAG)
Index Term(s): Architectural design; Correctional facilities; Correctional planning; Cross-examination; Environmental quality; Facility conditions; Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA); National Clearinghouse for Criminal Justice Planning and Architecture; Standards; State correctional facilities
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