skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 51824 Find in a Library
Title: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF VIOLENT, IMPERSONAL CRIME
Author(s): W B HOWARD
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 32
Sponsoring Agency: Nevada Youth Training Ctr
Elko, NV 89801
Sale Source: Nevada Youth Training Ctr
Staff Psychologist
P.O. Box 469
Elko, NV 89801
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: A SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY MODEL OF CRIME PREVENTION IS DESCRIBED. THE MODEL EXAMINES THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CRIMINAL AND VICTIM AND PROPOSES STRATEGIES WHICH CAN BE USED BY POTENTIAL VICTIMS TO AVERT A CRIME.
Abstract: THE MODEL IS BASED ON PREVIOUS RESEARCH, WHICH IDENTIFIED TWO PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES WHICH FACILITATE VIOLATION OF SOCIAL NORMS. THE FIRST IS DEINDIVIDUATION, WHICH ENABLES INDIVIDUALS TO BLOT OUT AWARENESS OF THEIR DEVIANCE. THIS PROCESS IS AIDED BY ALCOHOL, DRUGS, PSYCHOLOGICALLY ABNORMAL STATES, AND UNSTRUCTURED SITUATIONS. GROUP DEINDIVIDUATION ALSO OCCURS IN GANG SITUATIONS. THE SECOND PROCESS IS DEHUMANIZATION OF THE POTENTIAL VICTIM. EVIDENCE SUPPORTING EACH OF THESE MECHANISMS IS CITED AND VICTIM BEHAVIOR WHICH REINFORCES THEM IS DISCUSSED. THE ROLE OF BYSTANDERS AS UNINTENTIONAL ACTORS IN THE DRAMA IS EXAMINED. THE VICTIM IS URGED TO INVOLVE THEM ACTIVELY, BY ASKING FOR SPECIFIC HELP IN CLEAR, UNAMBIGUOUS TERMS AND BY SINGLING OUT A SINGLE PERSON TO AVOID DEFUSION OF A FEELING OF RESPONSIBILITY. RATIONALIZATIONS OFFERED BY BOTH CRIMINALS AND BY APATHETIC BYSTANDERS ARE EXAMINED. BOTH SETS OF EXCUSES SHOWED THE SAME DEINDIVIDUATION AND DEHUMANIZATTION ELEMENTS. BEHAVIORS WHICH THE VICTIM CAN USE TO OVERCOME THESE ELEMENTS ARE GIVEN IN DETAIL. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT IF POTENTIAL VICTIMS CAN BE TAUGHT TO ACT IN A WAY WHICH WILL INCREASE HUMANNESS AND MAKE BOTH OFFENDERS AND BYSTANDERS FEEL RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR ACTIONS, THE OFFENDER-VICTIM INTERACTION CYCLE WILL BE CHANGED AND CRIME WILL BE AVERTED OR THE POSSIBILITY OF INJURY WILL BE LESSENED. AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS APPENDED. (GLR)
Index Term(s): Behavior; Behavior patterns; Crime prevention measures; Criminal methods; Deterrence; Models; Offenders; Psychology; Studies; Victim-offender relationships; Victimization; Witness intervention in crime
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=51824

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.