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NCJ Number: 51833 Find in a Library
Title: DEFENSIBLE SPACE DESIGN OF HOUSING FOR CRIME PREVENTION
Journal: POLICE CHIEF  Volume:44  Issue:11  Dated:(1977)  Pages:34-36
Author(s): R H SCHINZEL; D J DINGEMANS
Corporate Author: International Assoc of Chiefs of Police
United States of America
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 3
Sponsoring Agency: International Assoc of Chiefs of Police
Alexandria, VA 22314
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE FIELD OF STUDY KNOWN AS CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN IS EXAMINED, AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO PROTECT CITIZENS FROM CRIMINAL ACTIVITY ARE MADE.
Abstract: ONE OF THE LEADING PRACTITIONERS AND ADVOCATES IN THE FIELD OF CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN IS OSCAR NEWMAN. HE PROPOSES THAT CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE DESIGN OF HOUSING ENVIRONMENTS CAN HELP PROTECT INHABITANTS. NUMEROUS CITIES AND PUBLIC AGENCIES HAVE UNDERTAKEN DIRECT MEASURES TO REQUIRE WHAT NEWMAN CALLS DEFENSIBLE SPACE DESIGN TO BE BUILT INTO ALL NEW HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS. ALTHOUGH NEWMAN'S RESEARCH IS CONFINED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY TO THE DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON HIGH-RISK APARTMENTS, THE MAJORITY OF NEW HOUSES BEING BUILT IN THE UNITED STATES ARE NOT HIGH-RISK APARTMENTS OF PUBLIC HOUSING. MORE PREVALENT ARE LOW-RISE GARDEN APARTMENTS AND SUBURBAN TOWNHOUSES. TO APPLY NEWMAN'S FINDINGS AND PRINCIPLES IN A WIDER CONTEXT, A STUDY OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE IN SUBURBAN TOWNHOUSES WAS COMPLETED BY THE UNIVERSIY OF CALIFORNIA AT DAVIS. THE STUDY INVOLVED 75 TOWNHOUSE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE NORTHERN PART OF CALIFORNIA. A 37-QUESTION ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY FORM WAS EMPLOYED TO MEASURE THE DEGREE OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE REPRESENTED BY A PARTICULAR TOWNHOUSE DEVELOPMENT'S DESIGN. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THERE WERE A NUMBER OF DEPARTURES FROM THE DEFENSIBLE SPACE IDEAL IN ALL BUT A VERY FEW DEVELOPMENTS. SIX RECOMMENDATIONS TO MINIMIZE OR ELIMINATE COMMON DEFENSIBLE SPACE DEFECTS ARE OFFERED: (1) SUBDIVIDE HOMES INTO SMALLER CLUSTERS OF HOMES THAT ARE CLEARLY LABELED AND SHARE A DEFINITE AREA OF OPEN SPACE AND PARKING; (2) PROVIDE BETTER SURVEILLANCE OF GARAGE ENTRANCES AND PARKING SPACES; (3) PROVIDE PRIVATE SPACE AROUND THE FRONT AND REAR OF EACH HOUSE, EVEN IF IT REQUIRES SUBDIVDING PART OF THE GREENBELT; (4) PLACE WINDOWS AND HOMES FACE TO FACE WITH GREENBELTS IN SUCH A WAY THAT RESIDENTS CAN ACTUALLY LOOK OUT OF THEIR WINDOWS ON A REGULAR AND CASUAL BASIS WITHOUT FEELING THAT ANYONE'S PRIVACY IS BEING INVADED; (5) PROVIDE OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS FOR CHILDREN WITHIN THE VIEW AND TERRITORIAL DOMAIN OF INDIVIDUAL HOMES; AND (6) ESTABLISH AND USE A DESIGN BANK OF SUPERIOR DESIGN IDEAS. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Block watch; Crime prevention measures; Deterrence; Environmental design; Urban planning
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=51833

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