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NCJ Number: 52038 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: MODELING FOR LESS-LETHAL CHEMICAL DEVICES
Author(s): D CAMPBELL; D O EGNER
Corporate Author: US Dept of the Army
US Army Human Engineering Laboratory
United States of America
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 83
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice/
Rockville, MD 20849
US Dept of the Army
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Document: PDF
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: MODELS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LESS LETHAL CHEMICAL DEVICES WHEN USED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT SCENARIOS.
Abstract: THREE LAW ENFORCEMENT SCENARIOS AND RELATED CHEMICAL MODELS ARE THE ONE-ON-ONE SCENARIO AND THE PROJECTOR MODEL, THE BARRICADE AND HOSTAGE SCENARIO AND THE VENTILATION MODEL, AND THE CROWD DISPERSAL SCENARIO AND THE MODIFIED CLOUD TRAVEL MODEL. A DESIRABLE EFFECT IS ACHIEVED WHEN A DEVICE ACCOMPLISHES THE PURPOSE FOR WHICH LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS USE IT. ANY ONE OF THE FOLLOWING EFFECTS ARE CONSIDERED UNDESIRABLE: LETHALITY, SERIOUS OR IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE, PROVOCATION OF OBSERVERS TO JOIN A DISTURBANCE, DISCOMFORT OR PAIN AMONG OBSERVERS, AND RETALIATION BY TARGET PERSONNEL. HAND-HELD AND HAND-ACTUATED PRESSURIZED CHEMICAL INCAPACITATING AGENT DISPERSERS ARE SMALL CYLINDRICAL CONTAINERS. THE UNITS DISPERSE THEIR CONTENTS AS HIGHLY DIRECTIONAL SHORT-RANGE BURSTS OF SPRAY. WHEN LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS EMPLOY CHEMICAL AGENT-FILLED GRENADES AND PROJECTILES AGAINST AN INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS BARRICADED HIMSELF IN AN ENCLOSURE, DESIRABLE EFFECTS ARE ACHIEVED WHEN THE SUBJECT IS TAKEN INTO CUSTODY WITHOUT SERIOUS INJURY. ONCE THE CHEMICAL DEVICE IS FIRED INTO AN ENCLOSURE, LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS ARE FACED WITH THE PROBLEM OF WHEN TO ENTER. THE MODIFIED CLOUD TRAVEL MODEL FOR EVALUATING CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN A CROWD DISPERSAL ROLE IS APPLICABLE TO INSTANTANEOUS POINT SOURCES, I.E., BURSTING-TYPE DEVICES. EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE APPLICATION OF THE MODELS IN SAMPLE ASSESSMENTS ARE DETAILED, AND SUPPORTING MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS AND DATA ARE GIVEN. REFERENCES ARE INCLUDED, WITH FURTHER DATA ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LESS-LETHAL CHEMICAL DEVICES APPENDED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Chemical irritants; Civil disorders; Crowd control; Evaluation; Hostages; Law enforcement; Less lethal technologies; Mathematical modeling; Police weapons; Resisting arrest; Riot control equipment; Riot prevention
Note: TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM 2-76
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=52038

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