skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 52149 Find in a Library
Title: ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND CRIME PREVENTION
Author(s): R S LAYMON
Corporate Author: US Dept of Justice
LEAA
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice
United States of America
Date Published: 1974
Page Count: 12
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice/
Rockville, MD 20849
US Dept of Justice

US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
Washington, DC 20531
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THIS PAPER EXAMINES EFFORTS TO PREVENT AND CONTROL CRIME THROUGH VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGIES THAT EMPHASIZE NATURAL SURVEILLANCE AND CITIZEN COOPERATION.
Abstract: TWO APPROACHES TO THE USE OF RESOURCES IN COMBATING CRIME ARE PREVENTION AND CONTROL. BECAUSE CRIME PREVENTION CAN BE BROAD AND COMPLEX, STRATEGIES ARE DIRECTED MORE TOWARD CONTROLLING THE SEVERITY AND REDUCING THE INCIDENCE OF CRIME. TARGET HARDENING OR MECHANICAL INTERVENTION IS ONE SUCH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGY. RESEARCH IN THIS AREA HAS FOCUSED UPON THE SPECIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR DOORS AND WINDOWS WHICH CAN ULTIMATELY BE TRANSLATED INTO MODEL BUILDING CODES STRESSING SECURITY. ANOTHER STRATEGY PROPOSES AN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN WHICH FACILITATES NATURAL SURVEILLANCE OF THE TARGET AREA, E.G., INCREASED STREET LIGHTING, AND ENCOURAGES AREA CITIZENS TO REPORT CRIMES. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NATURAL SURVEILLANCE AND CITIZEN ATTITUDES WAS DEMONSTRATED IN A NEW YORK CITY HOUSING PROJECT, AND AS A RESULT OF THE PROJECT'S SUCCESS A THEORY OF DEFENSIBLE SPACE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS THEORY, WHICH ENCOMPASSES BOTH PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS, IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING HYPOTHESES: (1) THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT HAS THE CAPABILITY OF DEFINING PERCEIVED ZONES OF TERRITORIAL INFLUENCE, (2) PHYSICAL DESIGN CAN PROVIDE SURVEILLANCE OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESIDENTS AND THEIR AGENTS, (3) GEOGRAPHICAL JUXTAPOSITION WITH 'SAFE ZONES' CAN AFFECT THE SECURITY OF ADJACENT AREAS, AND (4) THE PERCEPTION OF A PROJECT'S EFFECTIVENESS AND UNIQUENESS CAN BE INFLUENCED BY DESIGN. A STRATEGY WHICH EMPHASIZES INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOCUSES ON ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN OF COURTS TO IMPROVE SECURITY AND OF CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES FOR MORE HUMANE TREATMENT. AT THE TIME OF THIS STUDY, LEAA WAS SUPPORTING A MAJOR PROGRAM WHICH EXTENDED RESEARCH ON PUBLIC HOUSING INTO THE ENVIRONMENTS OF SCHOOLS, TRANSPORTATION CENTERS, COMMERCIAL AREAS, AND PRIVATE RESIDENCES. TABULAR DATA AND REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED. (JCP)
Index Term(s): Architectural design; Crime prevention measures; Environmental design; Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA); National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice; New York; Studies; Theory
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=52149

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.