skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 62605 Find in a Library
Title: TOWARD LEGAL SUPPRESSION OF ACTS AGAINST CIVIL AVIATION
Journal: INTERNATIONAL CONCILIATION  Issue:585  Dated:(NOVEMBER 1971)  Pages:42-78
Author(s): G F FITZGERALD
Corporate Author: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
United States of America
Date Published: 1971
Page Count: 37
Sponsoring Agency: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
New York, NY 10017
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: LEGAL ANALYSES OF THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS FOR COMBATING AIRCRAFT HIJACKING AND SABOTAGE INDICATE THAT THE VARIOUS CONVENTIONS CAN SAFEGUARD COMMERCIAL AVIATION ONLY IF THEY ARE APPLIED BY ALL NATIONS.
Abstract: RECOGNIZING THE HAZARDS OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT, MEMBERS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) DRAFTED THE 1963 TOKYO CONVENTION ON OFFENSES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT. TO COMPENSATE FOR WEAKNESS IN THAT INITIAL DOCUMENT, SUBSEQUENT AGREEMENTS SUCH AS THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970 AND THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 ADDRESSED THE SPECIFIC PROBLEMS OF HIJACKING AND EXTERNAL ATTACKS AGAINST COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT. THE LEGAL COMMITTEE OF THE ICAO WAS NOT ABLE TO DEVELOP A CONSENSUS ON REQUESTS FOR CONCERTED ACTION BY WORLD GOVERNMENTS AGAINST NATIONS WHICH DEFAULTED ON OBLIGATIONS RESPECTING INTERNATIONAL AVIATION. HOWEVER, THE ICAO COMMITTEE ON UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE DEVELOPED PROCEDURES TO BE USED IN PRESERVING THE SAFETY OF AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS IN THE EVENT OF A SEIZURE. SPECIFIC MEASURES INCLUDED THE RESTRICTION OF FIREARMS ON AIRCRAFT, AIRPORT SECURITY SYSTEMS, INSTALLATION OF CERTAIN EQUIPMENT ON BOARD AIRCRAFT, AND THE ISSUANCE OF INSTRUCTIONS TO GROUND PERSONNEL. EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS SPONSORED BY THE ICAO INDICATES THAT TAKEN TOGETHER, THE THREE MAJOR CONVENTIONS FORM A USEFUL PART OF THE LEGAL ACTION CURBING ACTS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST AIRCRAFT. PARTICULAR PROVISIONS WHICH ADDRESS SPECIFIC OFFENSES, SUCH AS HIJACKING, FORM A POSITIVE APPROACH TO PREVENT OFFENDERS FROM FINDING HAVENS FROM PROSECUTION. THE CONVENTIONS PERMIT NONEXTRADITION OF POLITICAL OFFENDERS WITH THE QUALIFICATION THAT THE OFFENDERS' CASE BE EXAMINED BY COMPETENT AUTHORITIES. FOOTNOTES ARE PROVIDED. (TWK)
Index Term(s): Aircraft hijacking; Aircraft security; Airport security; International agreements; International cooperation; International law
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=62605

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.