skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 62721 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH TERRORISM - AN OVERVIEW (FROM DISORDERS AND TERRORISM - REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON DISORDERS AND TERRORISM, 1976 - SEE NCJ-39469)
Author(s): H H A COOPER
Corporate Author: National Advisory Cmtte on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals
United States of America
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 24
Sponsoring Agency: National Advisory Cmtte on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals
Washington, DC
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: INTERNATIONAL CONCERN WITH TERRORISM IS REFLECTED IN THIS DISCUSSION OF PROTRACTED TERRORIST CAMPAIGNS, HARD VERSUS CONCILIATORY POLICIES, AVIATION SECURITY, AND LEGAL RESPONSES TO TERRORISM.
Abstract: SOME SOCIETIES ARE ACCUSTOMED OR BECOME HABITUATED TO A HIGH LEVEL OF VIOLENCE. IN THESE SOCIETIES, THE OCCURRENCE OF TERRORISM IS MERELY THE INTENSIFICATION OR SHIFT OF CURRENT VIOLENCE. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE DEMONSTRATES, HOWEVER, THAT PROTRACTED TERRORIST CAMPAIGNS, PARTICULARLY THOSE ASSOCIATED WITH A STRUGGLE FOR SELF-DETERMINATION, ALMOST ALWAYS LEAD TO SOME FORM OF MILITARY INTERVENTION OR INVOLVEMENT. ONCE THE INITIAL SHOCK OF A TERRORIST ONSLAUGHT HAS PASSED, MOST COUNTRIES ATTEMPT TO RESTORE PEACEKEEPING AND SECURITY FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. PERMANENT EFFECTS OF MILITARY INVOLVEMENT DEPEND ON POLITICAL AND OTHER CIRCUMSTANTIAL FACTORS, SUCH AS THE STATUS OF THE TERRITORY IN WHICH INTERVENTION OCCURS, THE STRENGTH AND POPULARITY OF THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT, TRADITIONS, AND THE SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF MILITARY OPERATIONS THEMSELVES. PROLONGED TERRORIST ACTIVITIES INVARIABLY CAUSE A REACTION OF COUNTERTERROR AND CAN IMPOSE SEVERE STRAINS ON THE ADJUDICATORY AND CORRECTIONAL SYSTEMS OF THE COUNTRY UNDER ATTACK. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE TO TERRORISM IS LARGELY DETERMINED BY WHAT THE RESPONDING POWER PERCEIVES AS FUNDAMENTAL SELF-INTEREST CONSIDERATIONS. THE EXTREME HARD LINE IS SOMETIMES EXPRESSED AS A POLICY OF NO NEGOTIATION WITH TERRORISTS. MORE COMMONLY, THE HARD LINE TAKEN IS ONE OF REFUSING CONCESSIONS. THE INTERNATIONAL POLICY THAT SEEMS TO BE EMERGING IN THE BARRICADED HOSTAGE SITUATION IS PATIENT WATCHFULNESS ALONG WITH REFUSAL TO GRANT CONCESSIONS. COUNTRIES FOLLOWING A SOFT POLICY GENERALLY HAVE AN EXCELLENT REPUTATION FOR GOOD FAITH BARGAINING AND IMPARTIAL ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. AT LEAST 22 COUNTRIES HAVE LAWS DEALING SPECIFICALLY WITH THE CRIME OF AIRCRAFT PIRACY OR SKYJACKING. BUT ENFORCEMENT OF THESE LAWS IS INADEQUATE, AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AVIATION SECURITY PROGRAMS IS DIFFICULT TO ASSESS. MEASURES ADOPTED AT BOTH DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL LEVELS TO CURB TERRORISM ARE EXAMINED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Aircraft hijacking; Aircraft security; Airport security; Revolutionary or terrorist groups; Terrorism/Mass Violence; Violence
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=62721

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.