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NCJ Number: 62728 Find in a Library
Title: ORIGINS OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM (FROM TERRORISM INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES, 1977, BY YONAH ALEXANDER AND SEYMOUR MAXWELL FINGER - SEE NCJ-44307)
Author(s): R A FRIEDLANDER
Corporate Author: John Jay Press
United States of America
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 16
Sponsoring Agency: John Jay Press
New York, NY 10019
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE DIVISION OF INTERNATIONAL OPINION REGARDING CAUSES OF AND REMEDIES FOR TERRORISM IS EXPLORED BY PLACING TERROR AND VIOLENCE IN LEGAL AND HISTORICAL CONTEXTS.
Abstract: AS A POLITICAL WEAPON, TERRORISM WAS EXTENSIVELY USED DURING THE 12TH AND 13TH CENTURIES BY A DISSIDENT ISLAMIC ORDER KNOWN AS THE ASSASSINS. THIS GROUP OF SECTARIAN MOSLEM FANATICS, WHO OFTEN ACTED UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF HASHISH, WAS EMPLOYED BY ITS SPIRITUAL LEADERS TO SPREAD TERROR IN THE FORM OF VIOLENCE AND MURDER AMONG PROMINENT CHRISTIANS AND OTHER RELIGIOUS ENEMIES. THE NAPOLEONIC INVASION OF THE SPANISH PENINSULA RESULTED IN ORGANIZED GROUP ACTION AND GUERRILLA WARFARE. THE RISE OF THE NATION-STATE AND THE THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SOVEREIGNTY ADDED NEW DIMENSIONS TO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEN AND SOCIETY. CENTRALIZATION OF POLITICAL STRUCTURES DURING THE FORMATION OF THE NATION-STATE WAS DIRECTLY LINKED TO THE EXTENSION OF MONARCHICAL POWER AT THE EXPENSE OF COMPETING INSTITUTIONS. DURING THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES, MONARCHS EXERCISED INTERNATIONAL AUTHORITY AS WELL AS NATIONAL LEADERSHIP, AND ASSOCIATED ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DYNAMISM HAD ITS GREATEST IMPACT ON RELIGIOUS ORTHODOXY AND SOCIAL ORDER. ASSASSINATION, USED BOTH AS AN IDEOLOGICAL STATEMENT AND AS A POLITICAL WEAPON, PREDATED THE POLITICIZATION OF TERROR AND VIOLENCE IN THE MODERN WORLD. THE DOCTRINE OF TYRANNICIDE WAS OPENLY EXPOUNDED AS THE LEGAL AND MORAL RATIONALE FOR PRIVATE RESISTANCE TO SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY AND THE ABUSE OF PUBLIC POWER. TERRORISM, LIKE REVOLUTION, HAS BEEN CAST IN BOTH DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL MOLDS. THE CREATION OF A SPECIALLY PROTECTED CLASS OF GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS HAS HAD THE EFFECT OF LEGITIMIZING ALL REGIMES UNDER THE PROTECTIVE COVER OF ANTITERRORIST STATUTES. THERE IS UNCERTAINTY IN THE LEGAL COMMUNITY REGARDING THE NATURE OF POLITICAL CRIMES, AND INTERNATIONAL URGENCY HAS NOT BEEN DEMONSTRATED IN CREATING VIABLE JURIDICAL PROCEDURES AND IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE LEGAL CONTROLS OVER TERRORISM. THE ISSUE IS HOW TO DEVELOP A WORKABLE LEGAL STANDARD THAT WILL DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PERMISSIBLE REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES AND PROHIBITED CRIMINALITY IN PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW. THE IDEOLOGY OF TERROR AND THE PERPETRATION OF TERROR AND VIOLENCE ARE DISCUSSED. EXTENSIVE NOTES ARE INCLUDED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Assassination; Political influences; Political offenders; Terrorism causes; Terrorist tactics
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=62728

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