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NCJ Number: 62731 Find in a Library
Title: AMERICAN POLICY RESPONSE TO INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM PROBLEMS OF DETERRENCE (FROM TERRORISM INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES, 1977 BY YONAH ALEXANDER AND SEYMOUR MAXWELL FINGER- SEE NCJ-44307)
Author(s): E EVANS
Corporate Author: John Jay Press
United States of America
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 12
Sponsoring Agency: John Jay Press
New York, NY 10019
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: UNITED STATES POLICY ON THE DETERRENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM SUFFERS FROM DEPOLITICIZATION. WAYS OF DETERRING TERRORIST ACTIONS ARE EXAMINED, INCLUDING MULTILATERAL CONVENTIONS.
Abstract: THE UNITED STATES INITIATED A STRUCTURE OF DETERRENCE AGAINST INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN THE LATE 1960'S WHEN ATTACKS ON AMERICAN DIPLOMATS, AIRLINERS, AND OVERSEAS CITIZENS BECAME WIDESPREAD. EFFORTS TO DETER TERRORISM FOLLOWED TWO POLICIES; ONE WAS ESTABLISHED FOR TWO-STEP INCIDENTS INCLUDING KIDNAPPING NEGOTIATION, AND A SECOND WAS FORMULATED FOR ONE-STEP INCIDENTS IN WHICH ACTS OF VIOLENCE DID NOT INVOLVE HOSTAGES. EFFORTS TO DETER ONE-STEP INCIDENTS PRIMARILY INVOLVED THE NEGOTIATION OF MULTILATERAL CONVENTIONS. IN 1970, THE UNITED STATES BEGAN TO FOLLOW A HARDER LINE BY REFUSING TO MAKE CONCESSIONS TO OR TO BARGAIN WITH TERRORISTS. THIS POLICY WAS INVOKED IN RESPONSE TO THE KIDNAPPING OF A DUTCH STUDENT AND THREE AMERICANS IN TANZANIA IN 1975. WEST GERMANY ON THE OTHER HAND, PURSUED A SOFTER POLICY OF NEGOTIATING WITH TERRORISTS. THERE WERE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE KIDNAPPINGS INVOLVING AMERICANS THAN WEST GERMANS, HOWEVER, BETWEEN 1970 AND 1975. UNDER KISSINGER'S LEADERSHIP, U.S. POLICY TOWARD TERRORISM SOUGHT TO ACHIEVE DETERRENCE BY DENIAL. TERRORISTS MAY BE DENIED THE RELEASE OF PRISONERS AND MONEY, BUT THEY WILL STILL ATTEMPT INCIDENTS TO CAUSE PUBLICITY, HARASSMENT, AND POLARIZATION OF SOCIETY AND/OR TO AGGRAVATE RELATIONS BETWEEN COUNTRIES. U.S. POLICY ON THE DETERENCE OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM SUFFERS FROM DEPOLITICIZATION. TO DETER HOSTAGE SITUATIONS, POLICYMAKERS MUST RECOGNIZE THAT KIDNAPPINGS CANNOT BE STOPPED BY REFUSING TO MAKE CONCESSIONS OR TO NEGOTIATE. THE CHANCE OF NEGOTIATING MULTILATERAL CONVENTIONS IS DEPENDENT ON POLICY TOWARD INTERNATIONAL WARS OF LIBERATION; SOME CONCESSIONS TO FEELINGS OF THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES ABOUT COLONIALISM AND RACISM MAY HAVE TO BE MADE. TABLES CONTAIN DATA ON KIDNAPPINGS INVOLVING THE UNITED STATES AND THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY, ARGUMENTS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES IN FAVOR OF AND OPPOSED TO ACTION AGAINST TERRORISM, AND A UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION ON TERRORISM SPONSORED BY THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES. NOTES ARE INCLUDED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Counter-terrorism tactics; Deterrence; Germany; International agreements; International law; International terrorism; Kidnapping; Policy; Political influences; United States of America
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=62731

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