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NCJ Number: 63279 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: TERROR IN VENEZUELA
Journal: MILITARY REVIEW  Volume:49  Issue:2  Dated:(FEBRUARY 1969)  Pages:49-56
Author(s): E F CALLANAN
Corporate Author: US Dept of the Army
US Army Command and General Staff College
United States of America
Date Published: 1969
Page Count: 6
Sponsoring Agency: US Dept of the Army
Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN TO OVERTHROW THE DEMOCRATICALLY-ELECTED VENEZUELAN GOVERNMENT IS DESCRIBED. THE NARRATIVE COVERS THE YEARS 1960 THROUGH 1964.
Abstract: WITH THE ELECTION OF PRESIDENT BETANCOURT IN 1960, THE VENEZUELAN GOVERNMENT INHERITED SERIOUS SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS, SUCH AS WIDESPREAD POVERTY AND MASS UNEMPLOYMENT. AT THE SAME TIME THE COUNTRY WAS GROWING RICH FROM LARGE OIL REVENUES. THE POLITICAL BASE OF THE INSURGENT EFFORT DURING BETANCOURT'S ADMINISTRATION WAS A COMBINATION OF THE VENEZUELAN COMMUNIST PARTY, WITH AN ESTIMATED MEMBERSHIP OF 30,000 TO 40,000, AND A SMALL PRO-CASTRO PARTY, THE MOVEMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY LEFT. ALTHOUGH NEITHER PARTY DEVELOPED A SIGNIFICANT FOLLOWING IN THE RURAL AREAS, STUDENTS, INTELLECTUALS, PROFESSIONALS, AND TRADE UNION MEMBERS IN LARGE URBAN AREAS FLOCKED TO THE PARTIES' SUPPORT. THE INSURGENTS DEVELOPED A FIVE-STAGE PLAN FOR RAPID VICTORY WITH THE OBJECTIVE OF A COMMUNIST TAKEOVER IN LATE 1962 OR EARLY 1963. THE MOVEMENT WOULD BEGIN WITH ORGANIZED URBAN VIOLENCE AND PASS THROUGH TERRORIST UNIT ATTACKS AND RURAL GUERRILLA ACTIVITY TO A REVOLUTIONARY WAR BY ALL ELEMENTS. THE CULMINATION WOULD BE A COMMUNIST ASSUMPTION OF POWER. BECAUSE RURAL GUERRILLA ACTIVITIES FAILED, THE INSURGENTS STAGED VIOLENT ATTACKS ON MILITARY FORCES AND COMMITTED OTHER ACTS OF URBAN VIOLENCE IN HOPES OF TOPPLING THE GOVERNMENT DURING THE RESULTING TURMOIL AND CONFUSION. THE COMMUNISTS FAILED BECAUSE OF A LACK OF PUBLIC SUPPORT, PARTICULARLY IN THE RURAL AREAS, THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY FORCES, CONTINUED SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT BY THE MILITARY, AND THE MAINTENANCE OF DEMOCRATIC AND LEGAL MEASURES TO COUNTER THE VICIOUS INSURGENCY CAMPAIGN. PHOTOGRAPHS AND TABULAR DATA ARE INCLUDED. (WJR)
Index Term(s): Case studies; Crisis management; Domestic terrorism; Politically motivated violent crimes; Public Attitudes/Opinion; Revolutionary or terrorist groups; Urban guerrilla warfare; Venezuela
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=63279

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