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NCJ Number: 63534 Find in a Library
Title: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE A CASE STUDY OF THE PUNJAB
Journal: MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL  Volume:25  Issue:4  Dated:(FALL 1971)  Pages:465-480
Author(s): S J BURKI
Corporate Author: Middle East Institute
United States of America
Date Published: 1971
Page Count: 16
Sponsoring Agency: Middle East Institute
Washington, DC 20036
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: SOCIOECONOMIC FORCES IN THE PUNJAB REGION OF WEST PAKISTAN THAT LED TO OPPOSITION AND ULTIMATE OVERTHROW IN 1969 OF THE AYUB KHAN REGIME ARE EXAMINED.
Abstract: ALTHOUGH MOST ACADEMICIANS HAVE CONCLUDED THAT THE POLITICAL DISORDER OCCURRED ONLY DURING THE 6 TO 9 MONTHS BEFORE AYUB KHAN'S RESIGNATION, MORE DETAILED ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT THE DISORDER OCCURRED OVER A PERIOD OF 2 YEARS. IT STARTED IN THE NORTHWEST PUNJAB AS A RESULT OF SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL FORCES. DATA ON PEOPLE ARRESTED FOR RIOTING IN WEST PAKISTAN AND IN PUNJAB CITIES AND TOWNS INDICATES THAT THE OPPOSITION MOVEMENT BEGAN IN SPRING 1967 IN THE TOWNS OF PUNJAB AND THEN MOVED TO THE CITIES. THE MOVEMENT HAD GREATER MOMENTUM IN AREAS WITH LOWER LEVELS OF PER CAPITA INDUSTRIAL INCOMES AND WITH LOW LITERACY LEVELS, ALTHOUGH THESE RELATIONSHIPS WERE OBSCURED WHEN DATA FROM LARGE AND SMALL URBAN AREAS WERE COMBINED. IN ADDITION, THE POLITICAL VIOLENCE WAS HIGHER IN CITIES AND TOWNS WITH LOWER RATES OF GROWTH THAN IN RAPIDLY EXPANDING URBAN AREAS, AND HAD LITTLE SUCCESS IN PRIMARILY URBAN REGIONS. THE POLITICAL UNREST IN THE SMALL TOWNS STEMMED FROM THE 3 YEARS OF AGRICULTURAL STAGNATION, ESPECIALLY IN THE PUNJAB, THAT ADVERSELY AFFECTED SMALL TOWNS' BUSINESSMEN, LAWYERS, AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS. STUDENTS RETURNING FROM CITIES TO THEIR SMALL TOWNS CAME INTO CONTACT WITH THE DISCONTENTED LAWYERS AND FORMED THE ALLIANCE ON WHICH THE ANTI-AYUB MOVEMENT WAS BASED. SCARCITY OF CERTAIN FOOD ITEMS CAUSED UNREST TO SPREAD TO LARGER CITIES. BHUTTO'S EMERGENCE AS THE CHAMPION OF THE UNDERPRIVILEGED TRANSFORMED THE MOVEMENT INTO A POPULAR UPRISING. RESULTS THEREFORE SUPPORT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SMALL TOWNS PLAYED A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE POLITICAL VIOLENCE OF 1967 THROUGH 1969. TABLES AND FOOTNOTES WHICH INCLUDE REFERENCES ARE INCLUDED. (CFW)
Index Term(s): Pakistan; Political influences; Riot causes; Riot patterns; Socioculture; Terrorism causes; Terrorism/Mass Violence
Note: PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE OF THE RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON THE PUNJAB, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA, MAY 6-8, 1971
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=63534

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