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NCJ Number: 63603 Find in a Library
Title: INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS (FROM PREVENTING NUCLEAR THEFT - GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT, 1972, BY ROBERT B LEACHMAN AND PHILLIP ALTHOFF - SEE NCJ-63601)
Author(s): R ROMETSCH
Corporate Author: Praeger Publishers
United States of America
Date Published: 1972
Page Count: 13
Sponsoring Agency: Praeger Publishers
Westport, CT 06881
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: EFFORTS TO ESTABLISH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS AGAINST THEFT OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS ARE EXAMINED, WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE NONPROLIFERATION TREATY (NPT) AND ITS EFFECT ON INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY (IAEA) WORK.
Abstract: EISENHOWER'S 1954 ATOMS FOR PEACE MASSAGE LED TO THE FORMATION IN 1957 OF THE IAEA. ITS SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM, WHICH RELIED ON EXPERT GROUPS, ADVISORY PANELS, AND COMMITTEES, APPLIED TO ALL BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS. IAEA HAS WORKED TO ADAPT ITS SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM TO THE NPT. A SPECIAL IAEA COMMITTEE WORKED 9 MONTHS TO DEVELOP A PROPOSED MODEL SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM. CRUCIAL POLICY AREAS DISCUSSED INCLUDED (1) THE NEED TO AVOID HAMPERING PEACEFUL NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES, (2) THE BALANCE BETWEEN EFFECTIVENESS AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SAFEGUARDS, (3) OPTIMIZATION OF SAFEGUARDS' COST AND EFFECTIVENESS, AND (4) DEFINITION OF THE INTERFACE BETWEEN INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS AND DOMESTIC AND REGIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS. THE RESULTING IAEA DOCUMENT STATES THAT THE MAIN SAFEGUARD SHOULD BE MATERIAL ACCOUNTANCY SYSTEMS, WITH CONTAINMENT AND SURVEILLANCE AS COMPLEMENTARY MEASURES. THE FOUR PROCEDURES TO IMPLEMENT THESE SAFEGUARDS ARE DESIGN INFORMATION, RECORDKEEPING, REPORTS, AND INSPECTIONS. ALL NPT PARTIES MUST ESTABLISH SYSTEMS TO CONTROL AND ACCOUNT FOR ALL NUCLEAR MATERIALS. THE INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM IS THEREFORE AN INFORMATION SYSTEM. IT PROVIDES FOR PROTECTION OF COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SECRETS. IT HAS DEVELOPED DETAILS OF TYPES AND CONTENT OF RECORDS TO BE KEPT. INSPECTIONS INCLUDE AD HOC INSPECTIONS, ROUTINE INSPECTIONS, AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS. TO EACH COUNTRY, THE IAEA PROVIDES SEMIANNUAL INVENTORY STATEMENTS, INSPECTION REPORTS, AND TECHNICAL CONCLUSIONS BASED ON INSPECTIONS. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF SAFEGUARDS TECHNOLOGY IS NEEDED. AUDIENCE DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER, PRESENTED AT THE 1971 SYMPOSIUM OF IMPLEMENTING NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS, IS INCLUDED. (CFW)
Index Term(s): Crime detection; Data collections; Information Systems and Technology; International agreements; International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); International cooperation; International law; International organizations; Nuclear facility security; Nuclear terrorism; Radioactive material; Surveillance
Note: PAPER PRESENTED AT A SYMPOSIUM OF IMPLEMENTING NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS, SPONSORED BY THE DIVERSION SAFEGUARDS PROGRAM ON THE CAMPUS OF KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY, OCTOBER 25-27, 1971
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