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NCJ Number: 63604 Find in a Library
Title: US (UNITED STATES) SAFEGUARDS OVERVIEW (FROM PREVENTING NUCLEAR THEFT - GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT, 1972, BY ROBERT B LEACHMAN AND PHILLIP ALTHOFF - SEE NCJ-63601)
Author(s): D L CROWSON
Corporate Author: Praeger Publishers
United States of America
Date Published: 1972
Page Count: 13
Sponsoring Agency: Praeger Publishers
Westport, CT 06881
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE U.S. SAFEGUARDS PROGRAM FOR PREVENTING DIVERSION OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS FROM PEACEFUL USES TO WEAPONS USES IS EXAMINED, WITH EMPHASIS ON ITS APPLICATION TO THE LICENSE-EXEMPT SECTOR OF THE U.S. NUCLEAR INDUSTRY.
Abstract: THE MAJOR U.S. GOAL SINCE THE BEGINNING OF ITS NUCLEAR PROGRAM HAS BEEN TO GUARD BOMB-TYPE NUCLEAR MATERIALS TO ENSURE THAT THEY DO NOT FALL INTO THE HANDS OF UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS. THE MOST INTENSIVE SAFEGUARDS EFFORTS HAVE THEREFORE FOCUSED ON HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM OR PLUTONIUM. LESS INTENSIVE EFFORTS HAVE BEEN DEVOTED TO SMALLER QUANTITIES, LOWER ENRICHMENTS, AND SPENT FUEL ELEMENTS. SAFEGUARDS INCLUDE PHYSICAL PROTECTION, SURVEILLANCE, AND A CENTRAL INFORMATION SYSTEM TO ACCOUNT FOR ALL NUCLEAR MATERIALS. UNLIKE THE INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM, WHICH PROVIDES ONLY GENERAL DETERRENCE, THE DOMESTIC SAFEGUARDS INCLUDE BOTH PHYSICAL PROTECTION AND POLICE AND CRIMINAL SANCTIONS. U.S. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT HAS PRODUCED SEVERAL ASSAY METHODS FOR NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND HAS DEMONSTRATED THE FEASIBILITY OF AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM. THE NATIONAL DATA SYSTEM SERVES AS A SINGLE DATA BANK FOR THE LOCATION OF MATERIALS WITHIN THE SYSTEM. TRANSPORTATION SAFEGUARDS ARE CURRENTLY ALMOST AS EFFECTIVE AS IS POSSIBLE, BUT FURTHER CONTAINER AND COMMUNICATION IMPROVEMENTS WOULD BE HELPFUL. THE MIX OF SAFEGUARDS SHOULD BE VARIED ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF MATERIAL AND THE NATURE OF THE THREAT IT POSES. DOMESTIC SAFEGUARDS SHOULD BOTH SUPPLEMENT AND COMPLEMENT INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY STANDARDS. THE OVERALL DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. SAFEGUARDS FOR THE LICENSE-EXEMPT SECTOR ARE EFFECTIVE, BUT SHOULD BE CONTINUALLY IMPROVED. AUDIENCE DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER, PRESENTED AT THE 1971 SYMPOSIUM ON IMPLEMENTING NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS, IS INCLUDED. (CFW)
Index Term(s): Counter-terrorism tactics; Crime detection; Data collections; Information Systems and Technology; Nuclear energy; Nuclear facility security; Nuclear terrorism; Radioactive material; Surveillance; United States of America
Note: PAPER PRESENTED AT A SYMPOSIUM OF IMPLEMENTING NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS, SPONSORED BY THE DIVERSION SAFEGUARDS PROGRAM ON THE CAMPUS OF KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY, OCTOBER 25-28, 1971
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