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NCJ Number: 63785 Find in a Library
Title: LOCKHEED AND JAPANESE POLITICS
Journal: ASIAN SURVEY  Volume:16  Issue:9  Dated:(SEPTEMBER 1976)  Pages:817-829
Author(s): H H BAERWALD
Corporate Author: University of California Press
United States of America
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 13
Sponsoring Agency: University of California Press
Berkeley, CA 94720
Type: Legislative/Regulatory Material
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS INVESTIGATING LOCKHEED CORPORATION REVEALED THAT $2 MILLION IN BRIBES WERE PAID TO JAPANESE BUSINESSMEN AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, UNLEASHING A MAJOR POLITICAL SCANDAL IN JAPAN.
Abstract: QUOTATIONS FROM THE SUBCOMMITTEE HEARINGS INDICATE THE PERIPHERAL NATURE OF SOME LOCKHEED REVELATIONS IN THE AMERICAN INVESTIGATION THAT WERE CRUCIAL FROM THE JAPANESE PERSPECTIVE. PRESS AND PUBLIC OPINION IN JAPAN WERE OUTRAGED, PROMPTING PRIME MINISTER MIKI TO EMBARK UPON JAPANESE INVESTIGATIONS OF UNPRECEDENTED IMPLICATIONS. PRIOR TO THE SCANDAL, ALLEGATIONS OF IMPROPRIETIES ABOUT POLITICIANS' BEHAVIOR HAD NEVER BEEN BROUGHT TO TRIAL, DESPITE OVERWHELMING EVIDENCE. ON JULY 27, 1976, HOWEVER, THE LEADER OF THE MOST POWERFUL FACTION IN THE GOVERNING PARTY, FORMER PRIME MINISTER TANAKA KAKUEI, WAS CALLED IN FOR QUESTIONING BY PUBLIC PROCURATORS AND JAILED. PRIME MINISTER MIKI HAD SUCCEEDED IN SUPPORTING THE LAW ENFORCEMENT INVESTIGATIONS REGARDLESS OF THE IMPLICATIONS, THEREBY JEOPARDIZING HIS CAREER AND CAUSING DIVISION IN HIS PARTY. THIS ESSAY REVIEWS JAPANESE REACTIONS TO THE LOCKHEED DISCLOSURES AND THEIR DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN EFFORTS TO ARRIVE AT THE FACTS LEADING UP TO TANAKA'S ARREST. DIPLOMATIC NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE AMERICANS FOR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION EVEN INVOLVED THE U.S. PRESIDENT. SUBSEQUENT JAPANESE DIET HEARINGS PROVIDED SUBSTANTIAL CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE THAT PAYOFFS ASSISTED IN THE DECISION TO PURCHASE LOCKHEED AIRPLANES. THE ROLES OF PROMINENT BUSINESSMEN, SOME DUBIOUS CHARACTERS OF THE UNDERWORLD, AND OTHER GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS REMAIN UNCLEAR. ALTHOUGH $75,000 APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN PASSED THROUGH JAPAN BY LOCKHEED AGENTS, SOME OF WHICH WAS PROBABLY CHANNELED BACK TO THE U.S. FOR ILLEGAL POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, A COMPLETE ACCOUNTING HAS BEEN IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE PUBLIC INFORMATION IS TOO FRAGMENTARY, THE EVIDENCE TOO CIRCUMSTANTIAL, AND THE VESTED INTERESTS TOO POWERFUL. THIS CASE REVEALS THE INTERDEPENDENCE OF THE U.S. AND JAPAN POLITICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY. MUTUAL COOPERATION IN THE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION IN THIS CASE HAS STRENGTHENED THE BONDS BETWEEN THE TWO PACIFIC PARTNERS. FOOTNOTES ARE INCLUDED. (MRK)
Index Term(s): Commission on Obscenity and Pornography; Corruption of public officials; International cooperation; Japan; Political influences; Testimony; United States of America
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