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NCJ Number: 63816 Find in a Library
Title: WHAT ARE WE IN POWER FOR? THE SOCIOLOGY OF GRAFT AND CORRUPTION
Journal: PHILIPPINE SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW  Volume:18  Issue:3-4  Dated:(JULY-OCTOBER 1970)  Pages:203-208
Author(s): J V ABUEVA
Corporate Author: Philippine Sociological Soc, Inc
Philippines
Date Published: 1970
Page Count: 6
Sponsoring Agency: Philippine Sociological Soc, Inc
Manila D-406, Philippines
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: Philippines
Annotation: THE EXTENT OF GRAFT AND CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES IS EXAMINED IN VIEW OF THE CAUSES, PREVALENCE, AND CONSEQUENCES OF THESE PRACTICES IN THE EXISTING SOCIAL CONTEXT OF THE COUNTRY.
Abstract: GRAFT AND CORRUPTION INCLUDE BRIBERY, EXTORTION, AND NEPOTISM, AND ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE SUBORDINATION OF PUBLIC INTERESTS TO PRIVATE AIMS AND VIOLATIONS OF THE NORMS OF DUTY AND WELFARE, ACCOMPANIED BY SECRECY, BETRAYAL, DECEPTION AND A CALLOUS DISREGARD FOR ANY CONSEQUENCES SUFFERED BY THE PUBLIC. THE PUBLIC CONSIDERS GRAFT AND CORRUPTION TO BE WIDESPREAD AND PERSISTENT; AS EVIDENCED BY SURVEY OF MID-LEVEL CIVIL SERVANTS FROM 25 AGENCIES POINTING TO THESE PRACTICES AS RAMPANT. THIS IMPRESSION IS FURTHER ILLUSTRATED BY POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS FOCUSING ON CORRUPTION AND FREQUENT PRESS COVERAGE. A DISTINCTION IS MADE BETWEEN PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE PROBLEM AND THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE ATTACHED TO IT BY THE PUBLIC. A STUDY INVESTIGATING PUBLIC OPINION REVEALS THAT ONLY 15 PERCENT OF THE RESPONDENTS MENTIONED CORRUPTION AS AN IMPORTANT NATIONAL PROBLEM, WITH THE LESS EDUCATED AND POORER RESPONDENTS RATING IT FAR BELOW HIGH PRICES, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND LAWLESSNESS. THUS, GRAFT AND CORRUPTION AS A LEGAL CONCEPT AND STANDARD OF PUBLIC MORALITY ARE ALIEN TO FILIPINOS WHO VIEW SUCH PRACTICES AS A TRADITIONAL FUNCTION. THEORIES ATTEMPTING TO EXPLAIN THE CAUSES OF CORRUPTION VIEW IT AS ROOTED IN SPANISH, AMERICAN, AND JAPANESE COLONIALISM; AS FUNCTIONAL IN THAT IT SERVES SOCIETAL NEEDS; AS BOTH CAUSE AND EFFECT OF SOCIAL CHANGE; AS SUSTAINED BY CUSTOMARY VALUES OF FAMILISM AND GIFT-GIVING; AS RELATED TO CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTRY SUCH AS UNEMPLOYMENT AND POVERTY; AND AS CUSTOMARY UNDER NATIVE TRADITION. AMONG THE UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF GRAFT AND CORRUPTION ARE THE EROSION OF PUBLIC TRUST IN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND FUNCTIONARIES WITH RESULTING INABILITY TO GOVERN, LOWER EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF THE BUREAUCRACY, AND THE LOSS OF FOREIGN RESPECT FOR FILIPINOS AND THEIR LEADERS. MOREOVER, THE ADDED COSTS OF BRIBES AND KICKBACKS ARE PASSED ON THE CONSUMER, CAUSING RISING COSTS OF GOODS AND SERVICES. HOWEVER, THESE PRACTICES HAVE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS SINCE THE COUNTRY IS STILL IN THE EARLY STAGES OF POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT. NEPOTISM AND GRAFT MAY ACTUALLY PROMOTE NATIONAL UNIFICATION AND STABILITY, NATIONWIDE PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS, THE FORMATION OF A VIABLE PARTY SYSTEM, AND BUREAUCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS. REFERENCES ARE INCLUDED. (MRK)
Index Term(s): Bribery; Corruption of public officials; Cultural influences; Graft; Kickbacks; Philippines; Social change; Socioculture
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=63816

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