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NCJ Number: 64263 Find in a Library
Title: CRIME AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Author(s): K D HARRIES
Corporate Author: Charles C. Thomas
United States of America
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 163
Sponsoring Agency: Charles C. Thomas
Springfield, IL 62704
Sale Source: Charles C. Thomas
2600 South First Street
Springfield, IL 62704
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THIS STUDY FOCUSES ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HUMAN AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR. THE PERSPECTIVE IS ECOLOGICAL AND RELATIONSHIPS ARE CONSIDERED IN AN AGGREGATE FASHION.
Abstract: THIS DISCUSSION OF THE ENVIRONMENT CORRELATES TO CRIME IS INTENDED TO ASSIST CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROFESSIONALS AND PLANNER ANALYSIS DEALING WITH SUCH PROBLEMS AS POPULATION DENSITY AND CROWDING. THE FIRST HUMAN ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERED IS THE MACROENVIRONMENT WHICH IS URBAN, REGIONAL, AND NATIONAL IN SCOPE. EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF URBANIZATION, CITY SIZE, AND POPULATION DENSITY AS THEY RELATE TO CRIME. CRIME DETERMINANTS OF CULTURE AND ECONOMY ARE ILLUSTRATED BY FOUR INTERPRETATIONS OF AN EXAMPLE OF REGIONAL CRIMINALITY--THE HIGH INCIDENCE OF HOMICIDE IN THE SOUTH. A GENERALIZED INTERURBAN ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF VARIATIONS IN CRIME RATES AMONG AMERICAN CITIES IS ALSO ANALYZED, USING SUCH VARIABLES AS PHYSICAL CONTEXT, MINORITY STATUS, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, AND RESOURCES ALLOCATED TO LAW ENFORCEMENT. THE SECOND LEVEL OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENT IS THE MICROENVIRONMENT, OR LOCAL ENVIRONMENT. DISCUSSIONS OF BURGLARY, RAPE, ASSAULT, AND ROBBERY, TO DISTRIBUTION OF THE CRIME IN SPACE AND TIME, CHARACTERISTICS OF VICTIMS, AND SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES. DENSITY AND CROWDING STUDIED AT THE MICROLEVEL REVEAL CONTRADICTORY FINDINGS. THE TWO VARIABLES SHOULD BE DISTINGUISHED IN FUTURE STUDIES, SINCE OVERCROWDING SEEMS TO HAVE A POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP TO CRIME WHILE DENSITY DOES NOT. IN ADDITION, THE CONCEPT OF 'JOURNEY TO CRIME', RELATING CRIME AND DISTANCE, IS EXAMINED. THE SECOND GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CATEGORY IS PHYSICAL AND INCLUDE LAND USE, TRANSPORTATION, AND BUILDING DESIGN AND LAYOUT. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CRIME AND CLIMATE IS TREATED SEASONALLY AND IN TERMS OF WEATHER INFLUENCES. TWO SPECULATIVE ISSUES WITH POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIPS TO CRIME ARE REFERRED TO--LOWER CRIME RATES WHERE LITHIUM IS PRESENT IN THE DRINKING WATER AND LUNAR INFLUENCES ON CRIMINALITY. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CRIME ANALYSIS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PLANNING ARE DETAILED WITH REFERENCE TO FEDERAL GUIDELINES. TABLES, GRAPHS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND AUTHOR AND SUBJECT INDEXES ARE PROVIDED. (MRK)
Index Term(s): Crime displacement; Crime patterns; Crime prediction; Crime prevention measures; Crime surveys; Environmental design; Juvenile parole services; Overcrowding; Suburban area studies; Urban area studies; Urban planning
Note: AMERICAN LECTURE SERIES NO 1035
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=64263

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