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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 64571 Find in a Library
Title: YOUNG SPECTATORS IN SOCCER STADIUMS
Journal: SCHRIFTENREIHE DER POLIZEI-FUEHRUNGSAKADEMIE  Volume:5  Issue:1  Dated:(1978)  Pages:70-79
Author(s): F STEMME
Corporate Author: Walter Rau Verlag
United States of America
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 10
Sponsoring Agency: Walter Rau Verlag
4000 Dusseldorf 1, Germany United
Format: Article
Language: German
Country: West Germany (Former)
Annotation: THE CAUSES OF 'SOCCER HOOLIGANISM' IN WEST GERMANY ARE ANALYZED.
Abstract: THE ADOPTION OF SOCCER BY VARIOUS JUVENILE SUBCULTURE GROUPS, THE EXCESS OF ALCOHOL, AND THE ANONYMOUS PUBLIC CHARACTER OF THE SOCCER STADIUM HAVE TURNED SOCCER STADIUMS INTO PLACES OF JUVENILE VIOLENCE AND VANDALISM. UNDERLYING THIS VIOLENCE ARE THE PROBLEMS OF IDENTITY CRISIS IN TODAY'S SOCIETY AND THE LACK OF VALID SOCIAL NORMS. IN THEIR DESIRE TO DISTINGUISH THEMSELVES FROM THE REST OF SOCIETY (AND THEREBY FORGE AN IDENTITY), YOUNGSTERS INCREASINGLY ORGANIZE GANGS WITH THEIR OWN UNIFORM BEHAVIORAL NORMS. FOR THE YOUNGSTER OF THE LOWER CLASSES OF WEST GERMAN SOCIETY, 'ROCKER CLUBS' BECOME A MEANS FOR FILLING THE ABUNDANCE OF FREE TIME AND COPING WITH LONELINESS, BOREDOM, AND DEPRESSION. THE USE OF VIOLENCE AND BRUTALITY BECOMES THE CHIEF OUTLET FOR JUVENILES' AGGRESSION, AND RITUAL, AND, AT THE SAME TIME, A COVER-UP FOR THEIR DEEP INSECURITY. SOCCER FAN CLUBS IN PARTICULAR ARE CHARACTERIZED BY (1) A COMMON INTEREST IN A PARTICULAR SOCCER TEAM, (2) AN INABILITY TO ADOPT ACCEPTABLE NORMS OF BEHAVIOR, (3) A CONCENTRATION OF VIOLENT MEMBERS AS MORE MODERATE JUVENILES WITHDRAW FROM THE CLUB, AND (4) A PREFERENCE FOR THE ANARCHICAL ATMOSPHERE OF THE SOCCER STADIUM. THE FAN CLUBS, WHICH ARE NOT ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN SPORTS AND WHICH LACK THE DISCIPLINE OF TRUE SOCCER CLUBS, POSSESS NO EMOTIONAL STABILITY. AT THE STADIUM, THE POLICE BECOME THE ONLY (CLEARLY INSUFFICIENT) AGENCY OF RESTRAINT. AS THE NUMBER OF ALIENATED JUVENILE GROUPS CONTINUES TO GROW AND AS MORE AND MORE OF THEM FLOCK TO THE SOCCER STADIUM, SOCCER HOOLIGANISM MAY BE EXPECTED TO GET WORSE. EXPERTS WOULD DO WELL TO STUDY EXPERIENCES AND THE SOCIAL REACTION IN ENGLAND WHERE THE PROBLEM HAS EXISTED LONGER AND IN MORE VIOLENT FORMS. THE ARTICLE CONTAINS NO REFERENCES. --IN GERMAN. (SAJ)
Index Term(s): Collective violence; Crime Causes; England; Germany; Social conditions; Sporting event violent behavior
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=64571

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