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NCJ Number: 65034 Find in a Library
Title: CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGIST IN A CHANGING WORLD - PERSPECTIVE YEAR 1980 - THE SITUATION IN FINLAND (FROM TODAY'S PROBLEMS IN CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY - RESEARCH ON DIAGNOSIS ..., 1979, BY L BELIVEAU ET AT - SEE NCJ-65021)
Author(s): I ANTTILA
Corporate Author: Universite de Montreal, Centre International de Criminologie Comparee
Canada

Institut Philippe Pinel de Montreal 12
Canada

Universite de Genes
Centre International de Criminologie Clinique
Italy
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 12
Sponsoring Agency: Institut Philippe Pinel de Montreal 12
Montreal, Quebec 478, Canada
Universite de Genes
Genes, Italy
Universite de Montreal, Centre International de Criminologie Comparee
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3c 3j7
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: Canada
Annotation: THE ROLES OF THE CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGIST AND OF CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY IN SCANDINAVIA, ESPECIALLY FINLAND, IN 1980 ARE EXAMINED.
Abstract: THE TERMS 'CRIMINOLOGIST' AND 'CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY' ARE RARELY USED IN SCANDINAVIA, BECAUSE SUCH A PROFESSION IS NOT FOUND IN THIS REGION ALTHOUGH ITS FUNCTIONS ARE PERFORMED. SUCH TERMS AS 'FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY' AND 'CRIMINAL PSYCHIATRY' ARE MORE COMMONLY USED. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY GENERALLY REFERS TO EXAMINATIONS IN CONNECTION WITH COURT TRIALS; CRIMINAL PSYCHIATRY, TO INVESTIGATIONS OF CRIME AND CRIMINALS IN GENERAL. IN FINLAND, FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY INCLUDES BOTH INDIVIDUAL EXAMINATIONS AND TREATMENT. IN 1976, ABOUT 850 SUCH EXAMINATIONS AND 500 TREATMENT CASES WERE RECORDED. THE ROLE OF CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY HAS VARIED OVER TIME. OPTIMISM ABOUT TREATMENT'S BENEFITS AND USE PREVAILED IN THE 1940'S, AND 1950'S, BUT A BACKLASH OCCURRED IN THE 1960'S, BEGINNING IN DISCUSSIONS OF CIVIL RIGHTS PROTECTION IN RELATION TO COERCIVE TREATMENT. IN THE 1970'S, ALL SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES UNDERTOOK LEGISLATIVE REFORMS WHICH LIMITED USE OF INSTITUTIONS FOR PSYCHOPATHIC CRIMINALS. CLOSINGS AND PROPOSALS FOR CLOSINGS OF JUVENILE INSTITUTIONS IN 1973 ILLUSTRATED THE DEMISE OF THE TREATMENT IDEOLOGY. IN RECENT YEARS, CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY HAS BEEN DISCUSSED INFREQUENTLY. ITS PRESENT POSITION IN FINLAND'S CRIMINAL POLICY IS STABLE. THE GENERAL ATTITUDE HAS BEEN THAT FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY ENTERS INTO CRIMINAL POLICY ONLY IN EXCEPTIONAL CASES. IF THE OFFENDER IS REGARDED AS ILL, THE JUSTICE SYSTEM ACCEPTS TREATMENT IN PLACE OF PUNISHMENT. MAJOR PROBLEMS INCLUDE SHORTAGES OF EXAMINATION FACILITIES AND PHYSICIANS. CRIMINOLOGICAL RESEARCH SHOULD DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING TRENDS IN CRIMINALITY AND FACTORS WHICH DETERMINE WHETHER A GIVEN INDIVIDUAL WILL BECOME A CRIMINAL. IN ADDITION, IT SHOULD BECOME AWARE OF SOURCES OF BIAS AND ERROR. COOPERATION BETWEEN CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGISTS AND SOCIOLOGICALLY ORIENTED CRIMINOLOGISTS IS NEEDED TO CLARIFY THEIR RESPECTIVE ROLES. A TABLE AND AN APPENDIX DESCRIBING THE MENTAL EXAMINATION PROCESS IN FINLAND ARE INCLUDED. (CFW)
Index Term(s): Criminology; Finland; Forensic psychiatry; Future trends; Psychological evaluation; Scandinavia
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=65034

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