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NCJ Number: 65053 Find in a Library
Title: SOCIAL CONTEXT AND CRIME
Journal: INDIAN JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY  Volume:6  Issue:1  Dated:(JANUARY 1978)  Pages:5-10
Author(s): M S GORE
Corporate Author: Indian Soc of Criminology
University of Madras
India
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 6
Sponsoring Agency: Indian Soc of Criminology
Madras 600005, India
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: India
Annotation: STRUCTURED SOURCES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR IN SOCIETY ARE EXPLORED, PARTICULARLY IN THE AREAS OF POLITICS AND ADMINISTRATION. THE SPECIFIC FOCUS IS ON PUBLIC CORRUPTION AND BLACK MARKETING.
Abstract: SOCIOLOGISTS APPROACH THE STUDY OF CRIME IN TERMS OF SOCIALLY STRUCTURED SOURCES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR OR IN TERMS OF SUCH CONCEPTS AS ANOMIE, RELATIVE DEPRIVATION, AND DISSONANCE OR DISPLACEMENT IN THE MEANS-END RELATIONSHIP OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. IN ANALYZING STRUCTURAL SOURCES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR (CORRUPTION AND BLACK MARKETING), ONE MUST UNDERSTAND THE SOCIAL CONTEXT IN WHICH CRIMES OCCUR. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT IN INDIA, AS IN MOST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, IS COMPLEX WITH RESPECT TO POVERTY, UNEQUAL SOCIAL CLASS DIVISIONS, SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE POPULATION, AND THE POLITICAL PROCESS. CORRUPTION PREVAILS AT THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT'S ADMINISTRATIVE LEVEL, ESPECIALLY IN CERTAIN DEPARTMENTS WHERE OFFICIALS COME IN CONTACT WITH MONIED CLIENTS AS ASSESSEES, CONTRACTORS, BUSINESSMEN SEEKING LICENSES, OR OFFENDERS SEEKING TO ESCAPE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR ACTIONS. UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS, REGULATIONS IN ANY COUNTRY HAVE THE POTENTIAL OF BEING CONVERTED INTO A LEVERAGE FOR PERSONAL GAIN. THESE CONDITIONS DO NOT RELATE TO THE POLITICAL SYSTEM AS SUCH BUT RATHER TO CONSUMER ORIENTATION AND THE LACK OF SOCIAL COMMITMENT BY UPWARDLY MOBILE, EDUCATED MIDDLE-CLASS CITIZENS. CORRUPTION PROMOTES AND IS STRENGTHENED BY BLACK MARKETING. BLACK MARKETS ARISE BECAUSE PEOPLE WANT TO CONCEAL THEIR REAL INCOMES. THE OPERATION OF A BLACK MARKET OR 'PARALLEL ECONOMY' INVOLVES A WHOLE SET OF WHITE-COLLAR DELINQUENCIES, INCLUDING TAX EVASIONS, CORRUPTION, ACCOUNT FALSIFICATION, RENT REGULATION BREACHES, FALSE REGISTER MAINTENANCE, ETC. BLACK MARKETING ENCOURAGES SMUGGLING AND ALSO CREATES INFLATIONARY PRESSURES ON THE ECONOMY. THE OPERATION OF A PARALLEL ECONOMY IS PROBABLY THE LARGEST SINGLE FACTOR RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY URBAN CRIMES. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Black market; Bribery; Corruption of public officials; Crime Causes; Economic influences; Embezzlement; Fraud; Graft; India; Professional misconduct; Smuggling/Trafficking; Social classes; Social conditions; Tax evasion; Unlawful compensation; White collar crime
Note: PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE SEVENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE INDIAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY AT ALIGARTH ON 28 DECEMBER 1977
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