skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 65160 Find in a Library
Title: ORGANIZATIONAL CRIME - TWO MODELS OF CRIMINOGENESIS
Journal: SOCIOLOGICAL QUARTERLY  Volume:20  Issue:4  Dated:(AUTUMN 1979)  Pages:517-528
Author(s): M L NEEDLEMAN; C NEEDLEMAN
Corporate Author: Midwest Sociological Soc
Dept of Sociology
Southern Illinois University
United States of America
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 12
Sponsoring Agency: Midwest Sociological Soc
Carbondale, IL 62901
William S Hein and Co, Inc
Buffalo, NY 14209
Sale Source: William S Hein and Co, Inc
1285 Main Street
Buffalo, NY 14209
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: INTEREST IN CRIMINOGENIC FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL CRIME HAS FOCUSED ON CRIME-COERCIVE SYSTEMS. THIS ARTICLE IDENTIFIES ANOTHER, LESS-STUDIED VARIANT OF CRIMINOGENIC ORGANIZATION, THE CRIME-FACILITATIVE SYSTEM.
Abstract: CRIME COERCIVE SYSTEMS, IDENTIFIED WITH THE AUTOMOBILE AND LIQUOR INDUSTRIES, COMPEL THEIR MEMBERS TO COMMIT ILLEGAL ACTS AS THE PRICE OF SUCCESSFUL SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP. EMPIRICAL STUDIES DESCRIBE TIGHT CORPORATE WORLDS IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL SYSTEM MEMBER IS ESSENTIALLY A PAWN WITH FEW CHOICES OR DEFENSES AGAINST CRIMINOGENIC PRESSURES. THE SYSTEM'S POLICYMAKERS DELIBERATELY SET LEGAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS THAT HAVE THE EFFECT OF DRIVING THEIR SUBORDINATES INTO CRIME. INDICATIONS ARE THAT THIS COERCIVE MODEL IS NOT WIDESPREAD AND ADMITS TO EXCEPTIONS AND VARIATIONS, INCLUDING RESISTANCE TO CRIMINAL COERCION. MOREOVER, THE COERCIVE MODEL MAY BE APPLICABLE TO RELATIVELY FEW OF THE CORPORATE SYSTEMS WHOSE STRUCTURES PROMOTE CRIME. IN CONTRAST, THE CRIME-FACILITATIVE SYSTEM COVERS ORGANIZATIONS WITH LOOSER, MORE COMPETITIVE MARKET STRUCTURES; IN THIS SYSTEM, CRIME MAY BE ENCOURAGED WITHOUT DIRECT BENEFIT TO THE SYSTEM ITSELF AND PRACTICED BY OUTSIDERS WHO INVADE THE SYSTEM FOR SUPPORT AND COLLUSION FROM INSIDERS. UNLIKE THE CRIME-COERCIVE SYSTEM, WHERE CRIMINAL ACTIVITY REPRESENTS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF DOING BUSINESS, THE CRIME-FACILITATIVE SYSTEM INVOLVES CRIMINAL ACTIVITY AS AN UNWELCOME BUT UNAVOIDABLE COST OF DOING BUSINESS. FOR INSTANCE, IN THE SECURITIES INDUSTRY, WORTHLESS SECURITIES ARE INTRODUCED INTO THE STREAM OF LEGITIMATE FINANCIAL COMMERCE, CIRCULATING WITH THE COOPERATION OF SYSTEM MEMBERS. LIMITED LEGAL LIABILITY FACILITATES THIS CRIMINAL PRACTICE, SINCE THE RISKS OF AIDING AND ABETTING FRAUD ARE MINIMAL. STRONGER CONTROLS WOULD IMPEDE THE FREE FLOW OF COMMERCE, WHICH THREATENS BUSINESS MUCH MORE SERIOUSLY. MOREOVER, TRADITIONS OF THE COMMERCE, SUCH AS CONFIDENTIALITY AND PROFESSIONAL SOLIDARITY ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO THE UNCHECKED PRACTICES OF FRAUD WITHIN THE INDUSTRY. THESE CRIME-FACILITATIVE MODELS CAN BE ALTERED TO BECOME CRIME RESISTANT WITH THE HELP OF MORE EXTENSIVE RESEARCH. REFERENCES ARE INCLUDED. (MRK)
Index Term(s): Crimes against businesses; Criminal infiltration of business; Fraud; Models; Securities fraud; White collar crime; White collar crime causes
Note: SHORTER VERSION OF THIS PAPER WAS PRESENTED AT THE ANNUAL MEETINGS OF THE EASTERN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY IN MARCH 1979 PRICE QUOTED IS FOR THE ENTIRE ISSUE.
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=65160

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.