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NCJ Number: 65754 Find in a Library
Title: TERRORIST VICTIMIZATION - THE INTERFACE BETWEEN RESEARCH AND POLICY (FROM HOSTAGE-TAKING, 1979, BY RONALD D CRELINSTEN AND DENIS SZABO - SEE NCJ-65754)
Author(s): R D CRELINSTEN
Corporate Author: Lexington Books
United States of America
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 21
Sponsoring Agency: Lexington Books
New York, NY 10022
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: TERRORIST VICTIMIZATION IS ADDRESSED IN RELATION TO ACADEMIC RESEARCH ON THE ONE HAND AND PREVENTION AND CONTROL ON THE OTHER. THE BROAD QUESTION INVOLVES THE CONTRIBUTION OF RESEARCH TO DECISIONMAKING.
Abstract: THE DUAL ASPECT OF TERRORIST VICTIMIZATION, WHERE A TERRORIST USES THREATS AGAINST ONE SET OF VICTIMS TO EXTORT SOMETHING FROM ANOTHER SET, HAS LED TO SUCH TERMINOLOGIES AS ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VICTIMS, DIRECT AND INDIRECT VICTIMS, AND PRIMARY AND SECONDARY VICTIMS. THE TERRORIST ACT IS OFTEN DESIGNED TO HAVE PUBLIC IMPACT, AND THE MASS MEDIA PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE. VICTIMS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS: DIRECT BUT SECONDARY VICTIM, E.G., HOSTAGE OR PERSON WHO OPENS A LETTER BOMB; PRIMARY VICTIM TO WHOM THE DEMAND IS MADE; INDIRECT VICTIMS (RELATIVES AND FRIENDS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC); TERTIARY VICTIMS, E.G., PEOPLE WHO SUFFER FINANCIAL OR PROPERTY DAMAGE DUE TO TERRORIST ACTS; THE TERRORIST; LAW ENFORCEMENT AND OTHER OPERATIONS PERSONNEL; AND THE MASS MEDIA. THIS CATALOG OF VICTIM TYPES CAN BE FOUND IN MOST HOSTAGE SITUATIONS INVOLVING A PROLONGED SIEGE. IMPORTANT VARIABLES IN THE CONTEXT OF HOSTAGE SIEGES ARE AGE, SEX, THE PRESENCE OF OTHER HOSTAGES, HOSTAGE RELATIONSHIPS, RELATIONSHIP OF HOSTAGES TO TERRORIST CAUSE, HOMOGENEITY AND SIZE OF HOSTAGE GROUP, AND TREATMENT BY CAPTORS. HOSTAGE-TAKING OCCURS IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS, INCLUDING THE PRISON ENVIRONMENT AND IN PRISONER-OF-WAR AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS. CONTEXTS WHICH DO NOT NECESSARILY INCLUDE CAPTIVITY BUT CONTAIN ELEMENTS COMPARABLE TO THE HOSTAGE SIEGE CONTEXT INCLUDE NATURAL DISASTERS, RAPE, SOCIAL VIOLENCE, AND THE TOTALITARIAN SITUATION. RESEARCH PLAYS A ROLE IN PREVENTING AND CONTROLLING TERRORIST VICTIMIZATION. THE RESPONSIBILITY OF RESEARCH IS TO HELP PREVENTION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES ADAPT TO CHANGING CONDITIONS. COMPARATIVE STUDIES THAT CONSIDER DIFFERENT NATIONAL EXPERIENCES, DIFFERENT CONTEXTS AND FIELDS, AND DIFFERENT CONCEPTUAL MODELS PROVIDE CLUES TO PREVENTION AND CONTROL ALTERNATIVES. A CONTINUING DIALOGUE BETWEEN RESEARCH AND POLICY IS THE ONLY WAY TO ASSURE THAT PREVENTION AND CONTROL REFLECT ACTUAL NEEDS OF A HEALTHY DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY. NOTES ARE INCLUDED. (DEP)
Index Term(s): Behavior typologies; Crisis management; Germany; Hostages; International Criminal Police Organization; Italy; Netherlands; Political offenders; Victims of terrorism
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=65754

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