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NCJ Number: 65759 Find in a Library
Title: CRIME BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS - IMPLICATIONS FOR VICTIMOLOGY (FROM WHITE-COLLAR CRIME - THEORY AND RESEARCH, 1980, BY GILBERT GEIS AND EZRA STOTLAND SEE NCJ-65757)
Author(s): D VAUGHAN
Corporate Author: Sage Publications, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 21
Sponsoring Agency: Sage Publications, Inc
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: REVISIONS IN VICTIMOLOGY APPROACHES ARE ILLUSTRATED BY A CASE INVOLVING CRIME BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS, BOTH CLAIMING THE ROLE OF VICTIM.
Abstract: IN 1977, REVCO DRUG STORES, INC. WAS FOUND GUILTY OF A COMPUTER-GENERATED DOUBLE-BILLING SCHEME THAT RESULTED IN THE LOSS OF OVER $1/2 MILLION IN MEDICAID FUNDS FOR THE OHIO DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE. REVCO REPRESENTATIVES RATIONALIZED THEIR ACTIONS BY EXPLANING THAT THE FALSE BILLINGS WERE THE MOST COST-EFFECTIVE WAY OF OBTAINING MONEY OWED THEM AS A RESULT OF THE DEPARTMENT'S REJECTION OF IMPROPERLY FILED LEGITIMATE CLAIMS. THIS CASE HAS YIELDED INFORMATION THAT REVEALS THE INADEQUACY OF TRADITIONAL VICTIMOLOGY FOR UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONS AS VICTIMS. THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF VICTIMS HAS EMPHASIZED MICROANALYSIS, USING 'VICTIM-PRECIPITATION' AS AN ANALYTICAL CONCEPT. HOWEVER, THIS APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING CRIME BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS IS INAPPROPRIATE BECAUSE OF THE NATURE OF THE OFFENDER AND THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CRIME. A MACROLEVEL EXPLANATION IS REQUIRED WHICH MOVES BEYOND THE CONCEPT OF VICTIM-PRECIPITATION. STRUCTURAL FACTORS SUCH AS ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, AND ORGANIZATIONAL IDEOLOGIES THAT PRECIPITATE OFFENDING BEHAVIOR MUST BE EXAMINED AS CONDUCIVE TO CRIME BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS. ANALYSIS OF THE REVCO CASE REVEALED THAT VICTIMIZATION AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL IS BOTH DIRECT AND INDIRECT, WITH THE IMPACT DIFFUSED AMONG MULTIPLE VICTIMS. THE VICTIM ORGANIZATION EMERGES AS A SURROGATE VICTIM, WHILE THE REAL VICTIMS ARE AFFECTED INDIRECTLY IN THAT THEY ARE INCAPABLE OF RECOGNIZING HARM OR TAKING ACTION. THE NEED TO BALANCE INTERESTS OF VARIOUS OTHER CATEGORIES OF ACTORS COMPLICATES THE IMPOSITION OF SANCTIONS. HENCE, THE MAJOR CONSEQUENCE OF MULTIPLE VICTIMS IN CRIME BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS IS THE LESSENING OF THE DETERRENT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS. (AUTHOR ABSTRACT MODIFIED--RCB)
Index Term(s): Case studies; Corporate criminal liability; Trade practices; Victimology; White collar crime
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=65759

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