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NCJ Number: 66452 Find in a Library
Title: FROM CHILD RESCUE TO FAMILY PROTECTION - THE EVOLUTION OF THE CHILD PROTECTIVE MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
Journal: CHILDREN AND YOUTH SERVICES REVIEW  Volume:1  Issue:2  Dated:(SUMMER 1979)  Pages:177-204
Author(s): J ANTLER; S ANTLER
Corporate Author: Pergamon Press, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 28
Sponsoring Agency: Pergamon Press, Inc
Elmsford, NY 10523
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: THE HISTORY OF THE CHILD PROTECTION MOVEMENT IN THE U.S. IS TRACED FROM THE BEGINNINGS TO ITS PRESENT (1979) STATUS.
Abstract: THE CHILD PROTECTION MOVEMENT EVOLVED OUT OF THE ANIMAL PROTECTIVE LEAGUES, WHICH EMERGED AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, ALONG WITH OTHER PHILANTHROPIC INSTITUTIONS. ALTHOUGH THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN IN RELATION TO PARENTS AND OTHER GUARDIANS HAD GRADUALLY EVOLVED THROUGHOUT THE 1800'S, LITTLE PROGRESS HAD BEEN MADE IN PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM PHYSICAL BRUTALITY, SINCE THE PARENTAL RIGHT TO DISCIPLINE CHILDREN BY CORPORAL PUNISHMENT WAS AN ACCEPTED AND WIDELY PRACTICED PRINCIPLE OF COMMON LAW. HOWEVER, ONCE THE ANALOGY WAS MADE THAT THE CHILD WAS IN FACT A HELPLESS ANIMAL, AS IN THE HISTORIC MARY ELLEN CASE IN NEW YORK, IT BECAME POSSIBLE TO PROTECT CHILDREN FROM PARENTAL PHYSICAL ABUSE AND NEGLECT. IN THE LATE 1800'S AND EARLY 1900'S, CHILD PROTECTION SOCIETIES DEVELOPED IN MASSACHUSETTS, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, AND OTHER STATES. ALL ESPOUSED THE BASIC GOAL OF PREVENTING CRUELTY TO CHILDREN AND INTERVENING ON THEIR BEHALF WHEN NECESSARY. BY THE 1930'S, MANY IMPORTANT CHANGES WITHIN CHILD PROTECTION WORK HAD BEEN EFFECTED. THE GROWING ACCEPTANCE BY STATES, COUNTIES, AND MUNICIPALITIES OF THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROTECTIVE WORK SYMBOLIZED A NEW ERA IN THE CHILD WELFARE MOVEMENT. PASSAGE OF THE FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY ACT IN 1935 PROVIDED THE FIRST FINANCIAL GRANTS TO STATES SPECIFICALLY FOR CHILD PROTECTION SERVICES. FINALLY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL CASEWORK METHODS AND THE GREAT INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOANALYSIS IN THE 1920'S AND 1930'S FURTHER EMPHASIZED FAMILY CASEWORK AS THE PRINCIPAL METHOD OF TREATMENT IN CHILD PROTECTIVE WORK. THE ORIGINAL EMPHASIS ON PREVENTING PHYSICAL ABUSE WANED BECAUSE THE PHENOMENON WAS PERCEIVED TO HAVE DECREASED SINCE THE LATE 1800'S. CONCERN WITH EMOTIONAL FACTORS BECAME PARAMOUNT AND GREATER EMPHASIS WAS GIVEN TO PERMISSIVE, VOLUNTARILY SOUGHT SERVICES. BY THE 1950'S, THE PROTECTIVE APPROACH ORGANIZED AROUND LAW ENFORCEMENT WAS REPLACED BY SOCIAL WORKERS AND CASEWORK METHODS. IN THE 1960'S, CHILD ABUSE AGAIN BECAME A NATIONAL ISSUE; LEGISLATION REQUIRING THE REPORTING OF SUSPECTED CASES OF ABUSE WAS PASSED IN EVERY STATE AND THE FEDERAL CENTER ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT WAS CREATED. REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES ARE PROVIDED. (PRG)
Index Term(s): Abused children; Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act; Child abuse reporting; Child protection services; Child welfare; Crimes against children; Massachusetts; New York; Parental rights; Pennsylvania; Social work
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=66452

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